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such HA architecture where applications can run in either load-sharing or failover mode. The reliability of HA systems can be further enhanced by hardening some of the hardware components of the individual system constituting an HA system. Typical candidates for such treatment are the network interface card (NIC), disk controller, disk, power supply, and so on.7 HA computing utilizes the redundant resources of clustered (two or more) processors. Such solutions address redundancy for all the components of a system, processors, main and secondary memory, network interfaces, and power/cooling. Although hardware redundancy may be effectively addressed by clustered (redundant) hardware resources, the class of errors detected is less comprehensive and the time required to recover from errors is much longer than that of fault-tolerant machines. Still, fault recovery in tens of seconds, from most common equipment failures, can be achieved at less than half the cost of traditional fault-tolerant computer systems. Highavailability systems are often configured as dual-redundant pairs.8 Carriers require high system availability and are concerned with the effects of possible softswitch downtime. Carriers demand low MTBF and employ traffic overload control, the shedding of call-processing capacity in the event of component failures, and quick failure detection and recovery mechanisms. The softswitch answer is to architect redundant softswitch hardware nodes at different locations throughout the network, which contributes to the overall network reliability. The majority of softswitches on the market run on servers from either Sun or Hewlett Packard. Recent advances in technology and declines in computer component pricing show the rate of Moore s Law may be somewhat less than 18 months. Moore s Law states that computing power (the power of semiconductors) doubles every 18 to 24 months, while the price of that computing power decreased 54.1 percent each year from 1985 to 1996. At the same time, the Gross Domestic Product deflator increased by 2.6 percent per year. Communications equipment, in this case both Class 4 and softswitch, is based largely on semiconductors. Hence, Moore s Law applies to both softswitch and Class 4 and 5, but more so to softswitch, given its client/server architecture (a newer platform than the Class 4 and 5 mainframe). The explostion in DS0 density in media gateways and BHCAs possible in softswitch exceeds Moore s law (computing power doubles every eighteen months). The count of DS0 s per 7-foot rack grew from 1,176 for a Netrix
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Kehret, William. High Availability Requires Redundancy and Fault Tolerance. RTC Magazine, Volume VI, Number 2, February 1998. www.themis.com/new/pubs/ha_article.html.
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media gateway in 1998 to 108,864 for a Convergent Networks media gateway in 2001, marking a growth in capacity of 30 times per year. In addition, Dale W. Jorgenson of American Economic Review has stated that software investment is growing rapidly and is now much more important than investment in computer hardware. Given that the main cost of a softswitch solution is software, this is very true of softswitch. If these trends continue, it is wise to use two years as a life cycle for these projects.9 This makes systems of six or more 9s economically feasible. Another mechanism to enhance reliability is to ensure that no SPOF is on the system. That is, every mechanism has a backup in the event of the failure of one unit. Hot standby refers to having a replicated unit take over the functions of its primary unit for either planned or unplanned outages. Continuously available (reliable) systems rely exclusively on active replication to achieve transparency in masking both planned and unplanned outages.10 In the PSTN, which relies on a star network topology and central offices, a central office or single fiber optic cable can represent an SPOF (see Figure 7-4). A crucial element of a high availability system design is to not only have redundant components, but to be able to switch over to the redundant components without a loss of voice or data traffic (see Figure 7-5). The architecture and implementation of hot switchover has one of the most significant effects on overall system availability in running live traffic. Elements of hot switchover include rapid execution and rapid fault detection. Rapid execution is the capability of a system to perform hot switchover to the standby mode in a subsecond timeframe. Rapid fault detection is the time required to detect a fault. This should range from microseconds for readily detectable events to full seconds for difficult-to-detect faults. The preservation of calls and billing is the ultimate goal of a highly available voice system in the event of a switchover. In this case, the user detects no disruption of the call, and the call is properly billed with no loss of revenue to the service provider. Technically, this means a preservation of the voice bearer traffic and the successful reestablishment and synchronization of all associated signaling. In-service upgrades are an important aspect of any service provider network. The ability to upgrade a voice system while it is simultaneously carrying live traffic is elemental for carriers. Live upgrades concern two factors:
Jorgenson, Dale W. Information Technology and the U.S. Economy. American Economic Review, Vol. 91, 2001. pp. 3 7. Clustra. The five 9 s Pilgrimage: Toward the Next Generation of High Availability Systems. www.clustra.com. pg. 3.
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