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depending on whether any of the ongoing calls are preserved after failover (the process of switching from failing system to running system) or not. To accurately predict the availability of a network or device, the software contribution to downtime must be considered. The problem, however, is that no industry standard exists for software reliability. Several methods are available for calculating software reliability, but these methods are known to be inaccurate and difficult to perform. The following paragraphs detail a study of one software product and are not intended as an endorsement of any product line. The best method known is to analyze field measurements for software reliability. As an example, Cisco Systems examined the number of softwareforced crashes from large sample sets with a variety of Cisco IOS (a Cisco software package) versions. Cisco standardized on a six-minute MTTR as a conservative estimate for the time it would take a router to reboot and reestablish neighbors and traffic flows in a medium-sized enterprise environment. These measurements did not account for software defects that did not restart the device, as these were difficult to measure. Using this methodology, Cisco concluded that Cisco IOS General Deployment (GD) software meets the five 9s reliability. Cisco IOS Release 11.1 is 99.99986 percent reliable with an MTBF of 71,740 hours and that the non-GD version of Release 11.1 is 99.9996 percent reliable with an MTBF of 25,484 hours. Software reliability is primarily a factor of software maturity. As the software ages and gains acceptance, defects are reduced until the software is considered stable with no problems expected. Developing the appropriate release can take 18 months. Cisco is also committed to releasing five 9s software by conducting extensive release tests on new software.13
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Power Availability
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Power and environment are also potential influences on the overall availability of the telephone network. Power is also unique in that it does not impact one device at a time like software or hardware. It affects, or can affect, an entire building or multiple buildings at a time. This can impact all available devices on the network, including distribution, the core, the gateway, and softswitch all at once. The calculations therefore change from
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Cisco Systems. IP Telephony: The Five Nines Story. p. 12, available at www.cisco.com/warp/ public/cc/so/neso/vvda/iptl/5nine_wp.htm
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Softswitch Is Just as Reliable as Class 4/5 Switches
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device based to entire network based, which creates a significant impact on the theoretical availability depending on the power protection strategy used for the network.
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Typical Power Outages in a Typical Telephone Network
What does a power outage look like in a Central Office What is its impact How drastic is it What can be done to lessen the impact of a power outage on a telephone network
The average number of outages sufficient to cause system malfunctions per year at a typical site is approximately 15. 90 percent of the outages are less than 5 minutes in duration. 99 percent of the outages are less than 1 hour in duration. The total cumulative outage duration is approximately 100 minutes per year.
Availability levels of five 9s or higher require an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system with a minimum of one hour of battery life or a generator with an onsite service contract or a four-hour response for UPS system failures or problems. A recommended high-availability solution requires additional support to achieve five 9s overall. The HA softswitch solution must include UPS and generator backup for all distribution, core, gateway and softswitch devices. In addition, the organization should have UPS systems that have an auto-restart capability and a service contract for a four-hour response to support the UPS/generator. Given the following recommended core infrastructure, it is estimated that nonavailability (downtime due to power failure) will be two minutes per year. The softswitch high-availability power/environment recommendations are as follows:
UPS and generator backup UPS systems with an auto-restart capability UPS system monitoring Four-hour service response contract for UPS system problems Maintain recommended equipment operating temperatures 24/7
Overall power availability using this solution is estimated to be 99.99962 percent. This impacts overall availability, 99.99993 percent, in the same
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