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Softswitch Is Just as Reliable as Class 4/5 Switches
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way a new module would affect a device in a serial system. The calculation used to determine overall estimated availability is then (.9999962) (.9999993) or 99.99955 percent.14
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Despite the torrent of debate over the reliability of Class 4 and 5 switches versus softswitch technologies, the chief culprit in the reliability of voice networks is human error. In the trade, it is called procedural outage and can mean such things as making mistakes in scheduling maintenance or planning system downtime for upgrades or other activities. Even the bestengineered networks are not immune from procedural outage. Human error presents a certain incongruity to the argument that a Class 4 or 5 switch delivers five 9s of reliability. Starting with the third quarter of 1992, the FCC required the reporting of large service outages by telecommunications service providers. Reporting requirements are specified in Part 63.100 of the FCC s Rules. In an effort to monitor the reliability of the nation s telecommunications network, the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions/Network Reliability Steering Committee (ATIS/NRSC) has performed various statistical analyses of these FCC-reportable service outages. The results of these analyses are published in quarterly and annual reports. The following are some of the more significant findings:
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Although numerous industry initiatives have enhanced the overall quality of software and hardware used in most major network elements, there has not been a sufficient focus on procedural issues to drive improvement trends. On average, 33 percent of the outages reported to the FCC are attributed to procedural errors. An all-time high in this category was reached in the fourth quarter (October through December) of 1998 with 53 percent of FCC reported outages being procedural (human error) in nature. The distribution of outages attributed to procedural errors is 79 percent service provider and 21 percent vendor.
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Cisco Systems. IP Telephony: The Five Nines Story. A white paper available at www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/so/neso/vvda/iptl/5nine_wp.pdf.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Outages attributed to procedural error are of lesser duration and impact than outages not attributed to procedural error. Industry-internal reports of outages attributed to procedural errors lack a consistent categorization and root-cause identification. The industry could be more effective in reducing procedural outages and enhancing network reliability if a common language and a consistent mechanism for reporting were implemented. Reviews of reports submitted to the FCC by service providers uncovered different formats and levels of detail, which created difficulty in understanding and categorizing some reports. Although some differences exist between the causes of large and small outages, they do not appear to be of such a magnitude as to influence the prioritization of solutions to procedural errors.
Two (Telcordia) generic requirements documents that have been written specifically to mitigate procedural errors. The first of these documents is GR-2914-CORE, Human Factors Requirements for Equipment to Improve Network Reliability. This document focuses on designing equipment from a user s perspective. The objective of these proposed generic requirements is to improve the design of the maintenance user interface of network equipment by focusing on design implementations that would most likely have a significant impact on reducing procedural errors. The proposed generic requirements in this document pertain to both hardware and software interfaces between network equipment and the technicians who perform maintenance activity on the equipment. The proposed generic requirements in this document are intended to apply to new equipment manufactured as of December 1998 and may also be applied to new subcomponents or additions to existing equipment in which the hardware and software interfaces are evolving. The spirit of GR-2914-CORE is to develop proposed generic requirements to ensure network reliability, but at the same time allow flexibility for product differentiation. The emphasis on the requirements in this document is to ensure that the design of network elements provides the necessary information for technicians to do their job and prevent confusion. GR-454-CORE, Generic Requirements for Supplier-Provided Documentation, presents proposed generic requirements for preparing network element documentation that will ensure that technicians have easy-to-use documentation that provides unambiguous information needed to successfully complete a task. These proposed generic requirements emphasize the importance of creating documentation from the user s perspective and
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