Improving QoS on the Network in Software

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Improving QoS on the Network
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QoS requires the cooperation of all logical layers in the IP network from application to physical media and of all network elements from end to end. Clearly, optimizing QoS performance for all traffic types on an IP network presents a daunting challenge. To partially address this challenge, several Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) groups have been working on standardized approaches for IP-based QoS technologies. The IETF s approaches fall into the following categories:
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Prioritization using the Resource Reservation Setup Protocol (RSVP) and Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Label switching using multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) Bandwidth management using the subnet bandwidth manager
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Douskalis, p.242 243.
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Quality of Service (QoS)
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To greatly simplify the objection that VoIP voice quality is not equal to the PSTN, the objection is overcome by engineering the network to diminish delay and jitter by instituting RSVP, DiffServ, and/or MPLS on the network. The International Softswitch Consortium in its reference architecture (covered in a later chapter) recommends using such tools to ensure QoS for VoIP networks.
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Resource Reservation Setup Protocol (RSVP)
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A key focus in this industry is to design IP networks that will prioritize voice packets. One of the earliest initiatives is Integrated Services (IntServ), developed by the IETF and characterized by the reservation of network resources prior to the transmission of any data. RSVP, defined in RFC 2205, is the signaling protocol that is used to reserve bandwidth on a specific transmission path. RSVP is designed to operate with routing protocols Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The IntServ model is comprised of the Signaling Protocol (RSVP), an admission control routine (which determines network resource availability), a classifier (which puts packets in specific queues), and a packet scheduler (schedules packets to meet QoS requirements). The latest development is the Resource Reservation Setup Protocol Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE), a control/signaling protocol that can be used to establish a trafficengineered path through the router network for high-priority traffic. This traffic-engineered path can operate independent of other traffic classes. An initiative from the IEEE, 802.1p is a specification that provides a method to allow preferential queuing and access to media resources by traffic class on the basis of a priority value signaled in the frame. This value will provide across the subnetwork a consistent method for Ethernet, token ring, or other media access control (MAC) layer media types. The priority field is defined as a 3-bit value, resulting in a range of values between 0 and 7, with 0 assigned as the lowest priority and 7 indicating the highest priority. Packets may then be queued based on their relative priority values.7 RSVP currently offers two levels of service. The first level is guaranteed, which comes as close as possible to circuit emulation. The second level is controlled load, which is equivalent to the service that would be provided in a best-effort network under no-load conditions. Reservation, allocation, and policing are mechanisms available in conventional packet-forwarding systems that can differentiate and appropriately handle isochronous traffic (see Table 8-2). What makes RSVP wonderfully simple in providing improved QoS for VoIP is that a network
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Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service (QoS)
Table 8-2 Reservation, allocation, and policing
Description This provides reservation setup and control to enable the resource reservation that integrated services prescribe. Routers use RSVP to deliver QoS requests to routers along datastream paths and to maintain router and host states to provide the requested service, usually bandwidth and latency. This offers another way to prioritize voice traffic. Voice packets usually rely on the user datagram protocol with RTP headers. RTP treats a range of UDP ports with strict priority. A traffic-policing mechanism, this allocates bandwidth commitments and limitations to traffic sources and destinations while specifying policies for handling traffic that exceeds the bandwidth allocation. Either the network s ingress or application flows can apply CAR thresholds.
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