MPLS-Enabled IP Networks in Software

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MPLS-Enabled IP Networks
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MPLS has emerged as the preferred technology for providing QoS, traffic engineering, and VPN capabilities on the Internet. MPLS contains forwarding information for IP packets that is separate from the content of the IP header such that a single forwarding paradigm (label swapping) operates in conjunction with multiple routing paradigms. The basic operation of
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Collins, pg. 384. Ibid., pp. 386 387.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Quality of Service (QoS)
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MPLS is to establish label-switched paths (LSPs) into which certain types of traffic are directed. MPLS provides the flexibility of being able to form Forwarding Equivalence Classes (FECs) and the capability to create a forwarding hierarchy via label stacking. All these techniques facilitate the operation of QoS, traffic engineering, and VPNs. MPLS is similar to DiffServe in that it marks traffic at the entrance to the network. The function of the marking is to determine the next router in the path from the source to the destination. MPLS involves the attachment of a short label to a packet in front of the IP header. This procedure is effectively similar to inserting a new layer between the IP layer and the underlying link layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. The label contains all the information that a router needs to forward a packet. The value of a label can be used to look up the next hop in the path for forwarding to the next router. The difference between this routing and standard IP routing is that the match is exact. This enables faster routing decisions in routers.12 An MPLS-enabled network, on the other hand, is able to provide low latency and guaranteed traffic paths for voice. Using MPLS, voice traffic can be allocated to an FEC that provides the differentiated service appropriate for this traffic type. Significant work has been done recently to extend MPLS as the common control plane for optical networks.13 QoS in softswitched networks is corrected with mechanisms similar to those in TDM networks. By engineering out deficiencies in the components (media gateways) and improving the network (DiffServ and MPLS), QoS can be brought up to the standards of the PSTN. Although not as quantifiable as a Mean Opinion Score (MOS) score on a media gateway, significant progress has been made in recent years in engineering closed IP networks to deliver PSTN quality voice. Figure 8-3 illustrates the progression in improving QoS on those networks. MPLS is not primarily a QoS solution. It is a new switching architecture. Standard IP switching requires every router to analyze the IP header and make a determination of the next hop based on the content of that header. The primary driver in determining the next hop is the destination address in the IP header. A comparison of the destination address with entries in a routing table and the longest match between the destination address and
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Ibid., pg. 364.
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Integral Access. The Evolution Toward Multiservice IP/MPLS Networks. A white paper located at www.integralaccess.com, 2001. pp. 4 5.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service (QoS)
Softswitch Performance in QoS
Figure 8-3 Voice quality for media gateways and IP networks versus Class 4 (PSTN). Media gateways now score 4.0 or better in MOS testing.
Class 4 Voice Quality 4
Media Gateway Voice Quality IP Network Voice Quality
Year
the addresses in the routing table determines the next hop. The approach with MPLS is to attach a label to the packet. The content of the table is specified according to an FEC, which is determined at the point of ingress to the network. The packet and label are passed to the next node where the label is examined and the FEC is determined. This label is then used as a simple lookup in a table that specifies the next hop and a new label to use. The new label is attached and the packet is forwarded. The major difference between label switching and standard routing based on IP is that the FEC is determined at the point of ingress to the network where information might be available that cannot be indicated in the IP header. The FEC can be chosen based on a combination of the destination address, QoS requirements, the ingress router, or a variety of other criteria. The FEC can indicate such information and routing decisions in the network, automatically taking that information into account. A given FEC can force a packet to take a particular route through the network without having to cram a list of specific routers into the IP header. This is important for ensuring QoS when the bandwidth that is available on a given path has a direct impact on the perceived quality.14
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