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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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MPLS assigns an FEC value to a packet upon its ingress to the network. That FEC value is then mapped to a particular label value and the packet is forwarded with the label. At the next router, the label is evaluated and a corresponding FEC is determined. A lookup is then performed to determine the next hop and a new label to apply. The new label is attached and the packet is forwarded to the next node. This process indicates that the value of the label can change as the packet moves through the network. Label-Switching Routers (LSRs) The relationship between the FEC and the label value is a local affair between two adjacent label-switching routers (LSRs). If a given router is upstream from the point of view of data flow, then it must have an understanding with the next router downstream as to the binding between a particular label value and a particular FEC. An LSR s actions depend on the value of the label. The LSR s action is specified by the Next Hop-Level Forwarding Entry (NHLFE), which indicates the next hop, the operation to perform on the label stack, and the encoding to be used for the stack on the outgoing link. The operation to perform on the stack might mean that the LSR should replace the label at the top of the stack with a new label. The operation might require the LSR to pop the label stack or to replace the top label with a new label, rather than add one or more additional labels on top of the first label. The next hop for a given labeled packet might be the same LSR. In such a case, the LSR pops the top-level label of the stack and forwards the packet to itself. At this point, the packet might still have a label to be examined, or it might be a native IP packet without a label (in which case, the packet is forwarded according to standard IP routing). A given label might possibly map to more than one NHLFE. This might occur when load sharing takes place across multiple paths. Here the LSR chooses one NHLFE according to internal procedures. When a router knows it is the next-to-last LSR in a given path, it removes labels and passes the packet to the final LSR sans the label. This is done to streamline the work of the last router. If the next-to-last LSR passes a labeled packet to the final LSR, then the final LSR must examine the label, determine that the next hop is itself, pop the stack, and forward the packet to itself. The LSR must then reexamine the packet to determine what to do with it. If the packet arrives without a label, then the final LSR has one less step to execute. How a particular LSR determines that it is the next-
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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to-last LSR for a given path is a function of label distribution and the distribution protocol used.15 Label-Switched Paths (LSPs) MPLS networks are subsets of a larger IP network. This means there will be points of ingress and egress to the MPLS networks from the larger IP network. An LSR that is a point of ingress to the MPLS network will be responsible for choosing the FEC that should be applied to a given packet. As label distribution works in a downstream-to-upstream direction, an LSR that is a point of egress is responsible for determining a label/FEC binding and passing that information upstream. An LSR will act as an egress LSR with respect to a particular FEC if the FEC refers to the LSR itself, if the next hop for the FEC is outside the label-switching network, or if the next hop means traversing a boundary. An LSP is the path to a certain FEC from a point of ingress to the egress LSR. The primary function of label-distribution protocols (LDPs) is the establishment and maintenance of these LSPs. Label-Distribution Protocols (LDPs) In the MPLS architecture, the downstream LSR decides on the particular binding. The downstream LSR then communicates the binding to the upstream LSR, which means that an LDP must be established between the two to support such communication. Label distribution is performed in two ways. First, a downstream on demand exists where a given LSR can request a particular label/FEC binding from a downstream LSR. Second, an unsolicited downstream exists, where a given LSR distributes label/FEC bindings to other upstream LSRs without having been explicitly requested to do so.
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