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Performance objectives for VoIP networks are either traffic oriented or performance oriented. Traffic-oriented objectives deal with QoS and aim to decrease the impacts of delay, jitter, and packet loss. Performance-oriented objectives seek to make optimum usage of network resources, specifically network bandwidth. Congestion avoidance is a major objective related to both network resource objectives and QoS objectives. As regards resource
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objectives, it is imperative to avoid having one part of a network being congested while another part of the network is underutilized, where the underutilized part could carry traffic from the congested part of the network. From a QoS perspective, it is necessary to allocate traffic streams where resources are available to ensure that those streams do not experience congestion with resultant packet loss and delay. Congestion occurs in two ways. First, it results from a lack of adequate resources on the network to handle the offered load. Second, it occurs from the steering of traffic towards resources that are already loaded as other resources remain underutilized. The expansion of flow control can correct the first situation. Good traffic engineering can overcome limitations of steering traffic to avoid congestion. Current IP routing and resource allocation is not well equipped to deal with traffic engineering. MPLS offers the concept of the traffic trunk, which is a set of flows that share specific attributes. These attributes include the ingress and egress LSRs, the FEC, and other characteristics such as average rate, peak rate, and priority and policing attributes. A traffic trunk can be routed over a given LSP. The LSP that a traffic trunk would use can be specified. This allows certain traffic to be steered away from the shortest path, which is likely to be congested before other paths. The LSP that a given traffic trunk will use can be changed. This enables the network to adapt to changing load conditions either via administrative intervention or through automated processes within the network. Traffic engineering on an MPLS network has the main elements of the mapping of packets to an FEC, mapping FECs to traffic trunks, and mapping traffic trunks onto the physical network topology through LSPs. The assignment of individual packets to a given FEC and how those FECs are further assigned to traffic trunks are functions specified at the ingress to the network. These decisions can be made according to various criteria, provided they are understood by both the MPLS network provider and the source of packets (the customer or other network provider). A third mapping that must take place revolves around providing the quality that is needed for a given type of traffic. This mapping involves constraint-based routing, where traffic is matched with network resources according to the characteristics of the traffic and of available resources. That is, one characteristic of traffic is the bandwidth requirements, and one characteristic of a path is the maximum bandwidth that it offers.
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To date, MPLS is considered the best means of engineering an IP network to handle voice traffic to deliver the best possible QoS. As this technology becomes more widely deployed in IP networks, VoIP will be delivered with a quality at least equal to the PSTN.16
Measuring Voice Quality
How does one measure the difference in quality between a VoIP network and the PSTN As the VoIP industry matures, new means of measuring voice quality are arriving on the market. Currently, two tests award some semblance of a score for voice quality. The first is a holdover from the circuitswitched voice industry known as mean opinion score (MOS). The other has emerged with the rise in popularity of VoIP and is known as PSQM.
Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
Can QoS be measured scientifically The telephone industry employs a subjective rating system known as the MOS to measure the quality of the telephone connections. The measurement techniques are defined in ITU-T P.800 and are based on the opinions of many testing volunteers who listen to a sample of voice traffic and rate the quality of that transmission. The volunteers listen to a variety of voice samples and are asked to consider factors such as loss, circuit noise, side tone, talker echo, distortion, delay, and other transmission problems. The volunteers then rate the voice samples from 1 to 5, with 5 being excellent and 1 being bad. The voice samples are then awarded an MOS. An MOS of 4 is considered toll quality. Table 8-4 shows the MOS scores of speech codecs in the PSTN. Table 8-5 illustrates how MOSs for some gateways now meet or exceed the 4.0 score assigned to the PSTN.
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