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Quality of Service (QoS)
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Table 8-4 MOS scores of speech codecs in the PSTN
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Standard G.711 G.721 G.723 G.726 G.728 G.729 G.723.1 Data Rate (Kbps) 64 16,24,32,40 Delay (ms) 0.125 0.125
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MOS 4.8 4.2
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16 8 5.3, 6.3
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4.2 4.2 3.5, 3.98
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Table 8-5 Comparison of MOS scores for VoIP gateways and Class 4 switches
Vendor and product Nortel DMS-250 (Class 4) Lucent 4ESS (Class 4) Convergent ICS2000 (Softswitch) SONUS GSX9000 (Softswitch) Nuera Nu-Tandem (Softswitch)
MOS 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.83
Conclusion
Adequate QoS requires optimizing queuing strategies, call-admission controls, congestion-avoidance mechanisms, and traffic-shaping and policing technologies. Given an IP network system s distributed nature, administrators must often perform these often highly interrelated optimizations simultaneously. Different QoS technologies, each addressing different aspects of end-to-end performance and each implemented in particular ways by equipment vendors, must be evaluated to achieve an adequate QoS for VoIP deployments.17 A properly engineered and managed IP network can deliver voice quality equal to or better than the PSTN.
Sheik, Fayez, Stan McClellan, Manpreet Sing, and Sannedi Chakravarthy. End-to-End Testing of IP QoS. A white paper from the IEEE, available online at www.computer.org/computer/ co2002/r5080abs.htm
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Source: Softswitch Architecture for VoIP
CHAPTER
SS7 and Softswitch
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SS7 and Softswitch
9
The 5ESS Class 5 switch from Lucent Technologies reportedly offers some 3,500 features. The features are a function of Signaling System 7 (SS7) signaling (refer back to 2, The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), for an SS7 tutorial). If the SS7 signaling network doesn t work, the 3,500 features will not be available to the subscriber. Almost every nation in the world has its own version of SS7 (or C7 outside the United States). Any international call must intermediate between two or more versions of SS7 in order for the call to be completed. In short, given the level of complexity of multiple SS7 versions, it s a miracle any international call is completed. The rise of VoIP with its own signaling protocols (H.323 and SIP) presents another challenge when interconnecting Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and Voice over IP (VoIP) calls. The grand challenge for Internet telephony service providers (ITSPs) is the intermediation of Internet Protocol (IP) networks and the PSTN. Such intermediation must not only perform call setup and teardown, but it must also transmit the signaling necessary for call features to be used. This chapter will describe how SS7 is transported over IP networks to facilitate signaling between the PSTN and VoIP networks. A VoIP network carries voice traffic cheaper than a switched-circuit telephone network because IP telephony networks make better use of available bandwidth. In a public switched telephone network, for example, a dedicated 64 Kbps end-to-end circuit is allocated for each call. In a VoIP network, digitized voice data is highly compressed and carried in packets over IP networks. Using the same bandwidth, a VoIP network can carry many times the number of voice calls as a switched circuit network with better voice quality. The savings realized in using VoIP networks are often passed onto users in the form of lower costs. In 2001, U.S. telephone companies are expected to offload between 15 and 20 percent of overseas voice calls to VoIP network operators, such as iBasis, and the percentage is rising each year as the VoIP network infrastructure is rolled out. Other countries, such as China, carry an even higher percentage of voice traffic over domestic and international VoIP networks. Metcalfe s Law (named for Bob Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet) states that the value of a network rises in proportion to the power of all the machines attached to it. In a telephone network, the number of telephones determines the value attached to the network. A private, enterprise VoIP network may be limited to the number of telephones or telephoneequivalent endpoints (that is, the telephony agent on a PC). The value of that network increases drastically with the addition of a VoIP gateway that will connect all the telephones on the enterprise network with the PSTN. By being able to access every telephone in the world (that is, all those
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