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SS7 and Softswitch
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connected to the PSTN), the value of the network grows exponentially in terms of the number of other telephones that can be reached from any telephone on that network. For this to happen, it is critical that the signaling systems of the private, VoIP enterprise telephone network interoperate with the PSTN. To do this, it is necessary for the VoIP network to transport SS7. Figure 9-1 provides some PSTN signaling examples and Figure 9-2 shows an example of signaling on a VoIP network. Fortunately, much work has been done in solving this dilemma. Every month, billions of minutes of long-distance traffic travels between IP networks and various PSTNs worldwide. If a VoIP service is to be considered carrier grade, it must support SS7. This chapter will outline the measures used to bridge IP networks and the PSTN.
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Figure 9-1 Signaling in the PSTN: channelassociated and common channel signaling
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Figure 9-2 Signaling on a VoIP network: common channel signaling with H.323 or SIP
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Speech and Signaling
Switch
Channel Associated Signaling
Switch
Signaling
S.T.P. Speech
S.T.P.
Switch
Common Channel Signaling
Switch
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SS7 and Softswitch
9
Signaling in the PSTN (SS7 or C7)
In order for a VoIP network to interoperate with the PSTN, it must interoperate with the SS7 network. At some point in the future, all voice conversations will be via VoIP using a VoIP-specific signaling protocol such as the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). However, in the present, a VoIP network must support SS7 if calls across that network originate or terminate in the PSTN. SS7 is not a protocol in and of itself, but rather a collection of subprotocols that operate together to deliver the SS7 functionality. The SS7 protocol stack, as detailed in Figure 9-3, is somewhat similar to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of IP networks. By understanding the SS7 protocols, it is possible to understand which SS7 elements interoperate with which VoIP signaling elements (SS7 is described in detail in 2). A review of the key elements of SS7 is provided here. The following paragraphs describe the subprotocols of SS7, as illustrated in Figure 9-3.
Message Transfer Part (MTP)
The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is divided into three levels. The lowest level, MTP Level 1, is equivalent to the OSI physical layer. MTP Level 1 defines the physical, electrical, and functional characteristics of the digital signaling link. The physical interfaces defined include E-1 (2048 Kbps; 32
Figure 9-3 otocol stack
Application Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP) Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) ISDN User Part (ISUP)
MTP Level 3
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 1
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SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 and Softswitch
64-Kbps channels), DS-1 (1544 Kbps; 24 64-Kbps channels), V.35 (64 Kbps), DS-0 (64 Kbps), and DS-0A (56 Kbps). MTP Level 2 ensures accurate endto-end transmission of a message across a signaling link. Level 2 implements flow control, message sequence validation, and error checking. When an error occurs on a signaling link, the message (or set of messages) is retransmitted. MTP Level 2 is equivalent to the OSI data link layer. MTP Level 3 provides message routing between signaling points in the SS7 network. MTP Level 3 reroutes traffic away from failed links and signaling points, and it controls traffic when congestion occurs. MTP Level 3 is equivalent to the OSI network layer.
ISDN User Part (ISUP)
The ISDN User Part (ISUP) defines the protocol used to set up, manage, and release trunk circuits that carry voice and data between terminating line exchanges (between a calling party and a called party). ISUP is used for both Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and non-ISDN calls. However, calls that originate and terminate at the same switch do not use ISUP signaling.
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) provides connectionless and connection-oriented network services and global title translation (GTT) capabilities above MTP Level 3. A global title is an address (a dialed 800 number, a calling card number, or a mobile subscriber identification number), which is translated by SCCP into a destination point code and subsystem number. A subsystem number uniquely identifies an application at the destination signaling point. SCCP is used as the transport layer for services based on the Transaction Capabilities Applications Part (TCAP).
Transaction Capabilities Applications Part (TCAP)
TCAP supports the exchange of noncircuit-related data between applications across the SS7 network using the SCCP connectionless service. Queries and responses sent between service switching points (SSPs) and
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