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SS7 and Softswitch
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service control points (SCPs) (refer to 2 for more information) are carried in TCAP messages. For example, an SSP sends a TCAP query to determine the routing number associated with a dialed 800/888 number and to check the personal identification number (PIN) of a calling card user. In mobile networks (IS-41 and GSM), TCAP carries Mobile Application Part (MAP) messages sent between mobile switches and databases to support user authentication, equipment identification, and roaming.1
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Interworking SS7 and VoIP Networks
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If SS7 is so critical to a phone call, how can a VoIP network interoperate with SS7 Very simply, a mechanism known as Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) facilitates the transport of the SS7 subprotocols over an IP network. The following section explains how each of the subprotocols of SS7 is transported over an IP network. Figure 9-4 illustrates from a high level the interaction between IP and PSTN networks for the completion of a simple phone call. Figure 9-5 details the SIGTRAN protocol stack.
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Figure 9-4 IP network to PSTN with SS7 signaling
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Signaling
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Signaling
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Media
PSTN
Telephone Telephone
Performance Technologies. SS7 Tutorial. A white paper at www.pt.com/tutorials/ss7.
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SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 and Softswitch
TCAP
Figure 9-5 SIGTRAN protocol stack
Q.931 MTP3
SCCP
ISUP
TCAP
M2UA
M3UA
SCTP
Signaling in VoIP Networks
VoIP networks carry SS7 over IP using protocols defined by the SIGTRAN working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the international organization responsible for recommending Internet standards. The SIGTRAN protocols support the stringent requirements for SS7 and C7 (the non-U.S. version of SS7) signaling, as defined by the International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). In IP telephony networks, signaling information is exchanged between the following functional elements (described in greater detail in 3, Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid! ):
Media gateway A media gateway terminates voice calls on interswitch trunks from the PSTN, compresses and packetizes the voice data, and delivers compressed voice packets to the IP network. For voice calls originating in an IP network, the media gateway performs these functions in reverse order. For ISDN calls from the PSTN, Q.931 signaling information is transported from the media gateway to the media gateway controller (MGC) for call processing. Media gateway controller (MGC, also known as gatekeeper or softswitch) An MGC handles the registration and management of resources at the media gateway(s). An MGC exchanges ISUP messages with central office switches via a signaling gateway. Because vendors of
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SS7 and Softswitch
9
MGCs often use off-the-shelf computer platforms, an MGC is sometimes called a softswitch.
Signaling gateway A signaling gateway provides the transparent interworking of signaling between switched circuit and IP networks. The signaling gateway must terminate SS7 signaling or translate and relay messages over an IP network to an MGC or another signaling gateway. Because of its critical role in integrated voice networks, signaling gateways are often deployed in groups of two or more to ensure high availability.
A media gateway, signaling gateway, or MGC (softswitch) may be separate physical devices or be integrated in any combination.2
Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN)
SIGTRAN architecture is defined in RFC 2719, Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport. The architecture uses the signaling components shown in Figure 9-6. Signaling over standard IP uses a common transport protocol that ensures reliable signaling delivery and an adaptation layer
Figure 9-6 SIGTRAN components (Source: Collins)
Adaptation Module
Common Signaling Transport
Standard IP Transport
IETF. Request for Comments 2719: Framework Architecture for Signaling Transport. October 1999, pg. 17.
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SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 and Softswitch
supporting specific primitives as required by a particular signaling application. That is, the common signaling transport makes sure that messages are delivered error free and in sequence, despite the inconsistencies of an IP network. The adaptation layer provides an interface to the SS7 application so that those applications do not realize that the underlying transport is IP as opposed to the SS7 network.3
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