vb.net barcode generator SIGTRAN Protocols in Software

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SIGTRAN Protocols
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The SIGTRAN protocols specify the means by which SS7 messages can be reliably transported over IP networks. The architecture identifies two components: a common transport protocol for the SS7 protocol layer being carried and an adaptation module to emulate lower layers of the protocol. For example, if the native protocol is Message Transport Layer (MTP) Level 3, the SIGTRAN protocols provide the equivalent functionality of MTP Level 2. If the native protocol is ISUP or SCCP, the SIGTRAN protocols provide the same functionality as MTP Levels 2 and 3. If the native protocol is TCAP, the SIGTRAN protocols provide the functionality of SCCP (connectionless classes) and MTP Levels 2 and 3. The SIGTRAN protocols provide all the functionality needed to support SS7 signaling over IP networks, including
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Flow control In-sequence delivery of signaling messages within a single control stream Identification of the originating and terminating signaling points Identification of voice circuits Error detection, retransmission, and other error-correcting procedures Recovery from outages of components in the transit path Controls to avoid congestion on the Internet Detection of the status of peer entities (in service, out of service, and so on) Support for security mechanisms to protect the integrity of the signaling information Extensions to support security and future requirements
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Collins, Daniel. Carrier Grade Voice Over IP. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. pg. 321.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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SS7 and Softswitch
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Restrictions imposed by narrow-band SS7 networks, such as the need to segment and reassemble messages greater than 272 bytes, are not applicable to IP networks and are therefore not supported by the SIGTRAN protocols.4
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Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
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To reliably transport SS7 messages over IP networks, the IETF SIGTRAN working group devised the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). SCTP enables the reliable transfer of signaling messages between signaling endpoints in an IP network. Associations To establish an association between SCTP endpoints, one endpoint provides the other endpoint with a list of its transport addresses (multiple IP addresses in combination with an SCTP port). These transport addresses identify the addresses that will send and receive SCTP packets. IP signaling traffic is usually composed of many independent message sequences between many different signaling endpoints. SCTP enables signaling messages to be independently ordered within multiple streams (unidirectional logical channels established from one SCTP endpoint to another) to ensure the in-sequence delivery between associated endpoints. By transferring independent message sequences in separate SCTP streams, it is less likely that the retransmission of a lost message will affect the timely delivery of other messages in unrelated sequences (called headof-line blocking). To meet SS7 signaling reliability and performance requirements for carrier-grade networks, VoIP network operators ensure that no single point of failure (SPOF) exists in the end-to-end network architecture between an SS7 node and an MGC. To achieve carrier-grade reliability in IP networks, links in a linkset are typically distributed amongst multiple signaling gateways, MGCs are distributed over multiple central processing unit (CPU) hosts, and redundant IP network paths are provisioned to ensure the survivability of SCTP associations between SCTP endpoints. Packets and Chunks SCTP sits on top of IP in the SIGTRAN protocol stack. When SCTP wants to send a piece of information to the remote end,
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IETF, pg. 17.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 and Softswitch
it sends what is known as an SCTP packet to IP, and IP routes the packet to the destination. The SCTP packet is comprised of a common header and a number of chunks. The common header includes the source and destination port numbers that, when combined with the source and destination IP addresses, uniquely identify the endpoints. The header also includes a verification tag that is used to validate the sender of the packet. The common header also includes an Adler-32 checksum, which is a particular calculation based on the values of the octets in the packet. This checksum is used to ensure that the packet has been received without corruption and provides another level of protection above the IP header checksum. A number of chunks enable the common header, and each chunk is comprised of a chunk header plus some chunk-specific content. This content can be either SCTP control information or SCTP user information. Streams A stream is a one-way logical channel between SCTP endpoints. A stream is a sequence of user messages between two SCTP users. When an association is established between endpoints, part of the establishment of the association involves specifying how many streams the association must support. If we think of a given association as a one-way highway between endpoints, then the individual streams are analogous to the individual traffic lanes on that highway (see Figure 9-7).5
Figure 9-7 Streams allocated according to signaling links of Circuit Identification Code (CIC) values (Source: Collins)
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