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Collins, pp. 326 327.
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SCTP Robustness Robustness is a key characteristic of any carriergrade network. It means that the network should implement procedures through which failures or undesired occurrences are minimized. Robustness also includes the capability to handle a certain amount of failure on the network without a significant reduction in quality. Furthermore, the network should provide a graceful degradation in the event of failures or overload. To do this, SCTP implements congestion-control mechanisms to ensure that one endpoint does not flood another with messages. It also utilizes path maximum transmission unit (MTU) discovery so that messages are not sent if they are too long to be handled by the intervening transport network.6
Transporting MTP2 over IP: M2UA
What makes SIGTRAN so unique is the mechanism to transport SS7 protocols over IP. By accomodating the existing SS7 protocols, SIGTRAN enables SS7 signaling to operate over an IP network. By mating SS7 protocols with IP transport, SIGTRAN enables interworking of IP with TDM telephone networks. MTP2 User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) The MTP2 User Adaptation Layer (M2UA) is a protocol defined by the SIGTRAN Working Group for transporting SS7 MTP Level 2 user signaling messages over IP using SCTP. The M2UA protocol layer provides the equivalent set of services to its users as MTP Level 2 provides to MTP Level 3. M2UA is used between the signaling gateway and MGC in VoIP networks. The signaling gateway receives SS7 messages over an MTP Level 1 and Level 2 interface from a signaling end point (SCP or SSP) or a signal transfer point (STP) in the PSTN. The signaling gateway terminates the SS7 link at MTP Level 2 and transports MTP Level 3 and above to an MGC or other IP endpoint using M2UA over SCTP/IP. The signaling gateway maintains the availability state of all MGCs to manage signaling traffic flows across active SCTP associations. Transporting MTP3 over IP: M3UA The MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA) is a protocol defined by the IETF SIGTRAN Working Group for transporting MTP Level 3 user part signaling messages (ISUP, Telephone User Part [TUP], and SCCP) over IP using SCTP. TCAP messages, as SCCP
Ibid., p. 336.
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SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 and Softswitch
user protocols, may be carried by SCCP using M3UA or by a different SIGTRAN protocol called SCCP User Adaptation Layer (SUA), as described later. M3UA is used between a signaling gateway and an MGC or IP telephony database. The signaling gateway receives SS7 signaling using MTP as transport over a standard SS7 link. The signaling gateway terminates MTP-2 and MTP-3 and delivers ISUP, TUP, SCCP and/or any other MTP-3 user messages, as well as certain MTP network management events over SCTP associations to MGCs or IP telephony databases. The ISUP and/or SCCP layer at an IP signaling point is unaware that the expected MTP-3 services are not provided locally, but rather by the remote signaling gateway. Similarly, the MTP-3 layer at a signaling gateway may be unaware that its local users are actually remote parts over M3UA. Conceptually, M3UA extends access to MTP-3 services at the signaling gateway to remote IP endpoints. If an IP endpoint is connected to more than one signaling gateway, the M3UA layer at the IP endpoint maintains the status of configured SS7 destinations and routes messages according to the availability and congestion status of the routes to these destinations via each signaling gateway. At the signaling gateway, the M3UA layer provides interworking with MTP-3 management functions to support the seamless operation of signaling between the SS7 and IP networks. For example, the signaling gateway indicates to remote MTP-3 users at IP endpoints when an SS7 signaling point is reachable or unreachable, or when SS7 network congestion or restrictions occur. The M3UA layer at an IP endpoint keeps the state of the routes to remote SS7 destinations and may request the state of remote SS7 destinations from the M3UA layer at the signaling gateway. The M3UA layer at an IP endpoint may also indicate to the signaling gateway that M3UA at an IP endpoint is congested (see Figure 9-8). Transporting SCCP over IP: SUA SUA is a protocol defined by the IETF SIGTRAN Working Group for transporting SS7 SCCP user part signaling messages (TCAP and RANAP) over IP using the SCTP. SUA is used between a signaling gateway and an IP signaling endpoint and between IP signaling endpoints. SUA supports both SCCP unordered and in-sequence connectionless services, bidirectional connection-oriented services with or without flow control, and the detection of message loss and out-of-sequence errors. For a connectionless transport, SCCP and SUA interface at the signaling gateway. From the perspective of an SS7 signaling point, the SCCP user is located at the signaling gateway. SS7 messages are routed to the signaling gateway based on the point code and SCCP subsystem number.
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