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Performance Technologies. Signaling in Switched Circuit and VoIP Networks. www.pt.com/ tutorials/iptelephony/tutorial_voip_signaling.html.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Q.921 messages can be passed from the ISDN to the IP network with identical Q.931 implementations in each network, neither of them recognizing any difference in the underlying transport.8
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To ensure carrier-grade service, it is necessary to ensure no SPOF exists on the network between the signaling gateway and the ASP. Signaling gateways are deployed in pairs similar to STPs in an SS7 network to provide redundancy. ASPs are software hosted on a variety of servers to provide survivability. 7, Softswitch Is Just as Reliable as Class 4/5 Switches, covered engineering networks for high availability. Each ASP requires a point code. ASPs usually have the same point code as their associated signaling gateway. This way, the ASP and signaling gateway appear to the SS7 networks as a single signaling endpoint (see Figure 9-9).9
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Figure 9-9 SS7 components are transported over IP using SIGTRAN components.
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TC AP
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Performance Technologies. Signaling in Switched Circuit and VoIP Networks. Collins, pp. 337 338.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 and Softswitch
SS7 Interworking with SIP and H.323
Until now, this chapter has described the interworking of SS7 nad IP networks. The following pages will explain how SS7 interworks with VoIP signaling protocols, SIP and H.323. As these are now the defacto standards for VoIP signaling, it is important to understand how SS7 works with each of these signaling protocols.
ISUP Encapsulation in SIP
SCTP and the associated adaptation layers provide the capability to convey SS7 application protocol information from an endpoint in the PSTN to a call agent in the center of the VoIP network. The call agent has access to the signaling information needed to route calls on the VoIP network. SS7 application protocols themselves are not used internally in the VoIP network. Protocols such as ISUP are mapped to equivalent VoIP protocols such as SIP. SIP/ISUP mapping is the most common. This mapping works well for those calls where the call originates on a VoIP network and terminates on the PSTN. Difficulties arise when the call originates on the PSTN and terminates on the PSTN. Rarely do the messages and parameters of one protocol match those of another. Interworking has to address the differences between state machines, times, and so on. For example, ISUP provides information that does not easily map to SIP headers. To accommodate SIP-ISUP interworking, ISUP information is mapped to the closest SIP equivalent (or discarded). To accommodate the transport of ISUP over an SIP-enabled network, SIP enables the message body to encapsulate an ISUP message. SIP messages and responses are used between the gateways, and those messages must contain an SDP message body in order for the gateways to describe media sent between them. Some messages can contain an ISUP message in binary form within the message body. The message body can have multiple parts, an SDP session description used by the gateways, and an encapsulated ISUP message carried transparently across the network (see Figure 9-10).10
Ibid., pp. 350 351.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SS7 and Softswitch
Figure 9-10 SIP in a transit network can be nontransparent to ISUP signaling.
Public switch
9
SIP/ISUP conversion
SIP over IP ISUP-bis ISUP
ISUP/SIP conversion
Public switch
Telephone
Telephone
SIP provides its own reliable transfer mechanism independent of the packet layer. For this reason, SIP does not require the services of the SIGTRAN SCTP protocol and functions reliably over an unreliable datagram protocol like UDP.
SIP for Telephones (SIP-T)
SIP for telephones (SIP-T) is a mechanism that allows SIP to be used for ISUP call setup between SS7-based public switched telephone networks and SIP-based IP telephony networks. SIP-T carries an ISUP message payload in the body of an SIP message. The SIP header carries translated ISUP routing information. SIP-T also specifies the use of the SIP INFO method for effecting in-call ISUP signaling in IP networks.11
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