barcode generator in vb.net free download Figure 13-14 Solar garden light. in Software

Creator QR in Software Figure 13-14 Solar garden light.

Figure 13-14 Solar garden light.
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Figure 13-15 Solar garden light schematic.
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Tracking the Sun
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One school of thought advocates positioning your solar panels on a fixed surface such as a roof, positioned so as to harness as much sun as possible on average over the year. This approach certainly works, but as we saw in 3, the sun is not a fixed object in the sky it moves, and so this approach is not necessarily the best. One other solution is to actively track the sun using a device such as the trackers shown in Figures 14-1 and 14-2. What this entails is using motors, hydraulic actuators, or some other devices to move our solar panels to follow the sun. This approach does have some merits. With the sun always facing the panels as face-on as possible, the most possible energy is extracted, as the panels are operating at their greatest efficiency. One of the main caveats of this design is that moving the panels does require some input of energy, and this must of course be subtracted from the total energy that the panels are producing. Furthermore, in some scenarios this is inappropriate if you are roof-mounting panels, it would not really be appropriate to reposition your roof every time the sun moves. In this chapter we will build a circuit that can be used to track the sun s movements and move a solar panel accordingly. The circuit is only simple, and will power a small motor to drive a demonstration display; however, with correct driver circuitry, the circuit could easily be scaled up to move bigger arrays.
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Figure 14-1 Solar tracker at Llanrwst, near Snowdonia, Wales. Image courtesy Dulas Ltd.
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Project 38: Simple Solar Tracker
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Figure 14-2 Solar tracker at Llanrwst, near Snowdonia, Wales. Image courtesy Dulas Ltd.
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If you don t fancy building your own solar tracker from scratch, Science Connection sells one as a kit under the stock code number 2216KIT. Full details are in the Supplier s Index. www.scienceconnection.com/Tech_advanced.htm
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Project 38: Simple Solar Tracker
You will need
10 k variable resistor 20 k variable resistor 2N4401 transistor TIP120 Darlington pair 9 V relay 5 V motor
3 LDR 33 R resistor 75 R resistor 100 R variable resistor
Project 38: Simple Solar Tracker
How the circuit works
We have three CdS photoresistors (Figure 14.3) The value of these resistors is about 5 k when not exposed to light. However, when we expose them to light their resistance decreases to around about a couple of hundred ohms. The third CdS cell is mounted in a shrouded enclosure so that it is only illuminated when it faces directly toward the sun. When the sun illuminates this photocell, its resistance drops, and as a result, when the sun shines on it, our Darlington pair is kept off. When the sun moves away from the line of sight of photoresistor 3, its resistance increases. This allows our Darlington pair to switch on, which in turn drives our relay, which in turn drives our motor to move the array. The variable resistor in line with the relay and motor allows us to regulate the motor s speed. The motor should turn slowly enough to move the array, but not so fast that the array overshoots before photoresistor 3 has a chance to respond to the change. Photoresistor 2 is mounted flush with the panel so that it can see the whole sky. Its function is to check that the sun is present, to prevent the array from searching for a sun that isn t there! If the sun is present it will sense this and drive the base of our NPN transistor low. However, if the sun
Figure 14-3 Simple solar tracker schematic.
disappears behind a cloud its resistance rises and our NPN transistor base is allowed to be high, this in turn drives the base of our Darlington pair low, which prevents the tracker from tracking. Our first photoresistor is mounted on the back of our tracker. It senses the new light coming from the east and activates the turntable to allow our solar panels to face the sun to catch the new light. The setup for our solar array and sensors is illustrated in Figure 14-4.
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