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Project 45: Generating Hydrogen Using Solar Energy
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The chemical symbol for water is H2O. Those with even a smattering of knowledge of chemistry will know that this means a water molecule is comprised of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. When we pass an electrical current through the water, using the reversible fuel cell as our electrolyzer, we are splitting the water into its constituent parts hydrogen and oxygen. Because of the membrane inside the fuel cell, the hydrogen and oxygen are kept separated. The hydrogen and oxygen can then be piped off, and stored in tanks, where the hydrogen and oxygen can be saved for later use.
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Other methods of generating hydrogen
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There are also a number of other proposed methods for generating hydrogen from solar energy, which, although we are not going to examine them in detail here, are certainly of merit.
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This is a good website to check out that talks about the bioproduction of hydrogen. www.energycooperation.org/bioproductionH2.htm
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Project 46: Stored Hydrogen to Create Electricity
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Project 46: Using Stored Hydrogen to Create Electricity
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PEM reversible fuel cell (Fuel Cell Store part no. 632000) Photovoltaic solar cell (Fuel Cell Store part no. 621500) Gas storage tank (2 ) (Fuel Cell Store part no. 560207) Rubber tubing Distilled water (not just purified!) Small load (only a volt or two)/variable resistor Figure 17-10 Schematic representation of a PEM fuel cell.
Tools
Ammeter Voltmeter
We have seen in the previous experiment, how we can use electricity, more specifically solar power, to generate hydrogen. We also saw that this hydrogen can be stored for later use. Now, in this part of the experiment, we are going to look at turning this hydrogen into electricity, and what is actually happening. In the hydrogen economy, hydrogen which is generated from surplus, cheap renewable energy, can be distributed through a network of pipes and used to provide power in the home via a small residential generator (which produces useful heat as a byproduct). Additionally, this hydrogen can be used to run motor cars or public transportation systems if stored in tanks on the vehicle. We are now going to see how a fuel cell converts this hydrogen back into electrical power. Figure 17-10 gives a schematic representation of our fuel cell, showing the major parts. If we look at Figure 17-11 we can see hydrogen entering the fuel cell ready to do its thing!
Figure 17-11 Hydrogen enters the fuel cell.
A reaction occurs as a result of the platinum catalyst. The electrons cannot go anywhere, as they cannot penetrate the membrane formed by the MEA, so they go round a circuit because this is the easiest path for them to take. Meanwhile, the protons escape across the membrane. This is illustrated in Figure 17-12. As the electrons travel around the circuit, they do some useful work. For example, in Figure 17-13 they are lighting a bulb.
Project 46: Stored Hydrogen to Create Electricity
Figure 17-12 The protons and electrons separate.
Figure 17-13 The electrons do some work.
At the other side of the membrane, the electrons (which have passed around the circuit), the protons (which have crossed through the membrane), and oxygen (from either the air or oxygen tanks), are brought together, where they react. You can see this in Figure 17-14. The product of this reaction is water, H2O (Figure 17-15). This process is happening continuously rather than in discrete stages. All the time there is a never ending ceaseless flow of electrons, protons, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Figure 17-14 The electrons, protons, and oxygen are reunited.
Connecting up your fuel cell
We now need to connect up our fuel cell as shown in Figure 17-16. The mechanical setup remains the same as for the last project. However, rather than being connected to a solar cell, we are connecting our fuel cell to a load, so that energy can be extracted. We are monitoring this load with a voltmeter and ammeter. Instantly, you should see the amount of hydrogen and oxygen in the tanks decrease little bit by little bit and bubbles flow through the pipes. Your load, if it is a small bulb, motor, or just a resistor, should show some sign of activity. The voltmeter
and ammeter will confirm that you are producing power. Well done you have made another great step toward the world understanding the hydrogen economy and applying it in practice!
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