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permissions by using relative permission strings, rather than absolute octal permission codes, means that permissions set by a previous change of permission command (i.e., chmod) are not revoked by any subsequent chmod commands. However, the permissions themselves are only half the story. Unlike single-user file systems, permissions on Solaris are associated with different file owners (all files and processes on a Solaris system are owned by a specific user). In addition, groups of users can be granted read, write, and execute permissions on a file or set of files stored in a directory. Or, file permissions can be granted on a system-wide basis, effectively granting file access without respect to file ownership. Because file systems can be exported using NFS and/or Samba, it s bad practice to grant system-wide read, write, and execute permissions on any file, unless every user needs access to that file. For example, all users need to read the password database (/etc/passwd), but only the root user should have read access to the shadow password database (/etc/shadow). Blindly exporting all files with world read, write, or execute permissions on a NFS-shared volume is inviting trouble. The three file system categories of ownership are defined by three permission-setting categories: the user (u), who owns the file; group members (g), who have access to the file; and all other users (o) on the system. The group specified by g can be the user s primary group (as defined in /etc/passwd), or a secondary group to which the file has been assigned (defined in /etc/group). Remember that there are ultimately few secrets on a Solaris file system: The root user has full access at all times (read, write, and execute) on all files on the file system: even if a user removes all permissions on a file, the rule of root is absolute. If the contents of a file really need to be hidden, encrypting a file s contents using PGP, crypt, or similar is best. A root user can also change the ownership of a file thus, a user s files do not absolutely belong to a specific user. The chown command can be used only by the superuser for this purpose. Policies regarding default file permissions need to be set selectively in different environments. For example, in a production Web server system that processes sensitive and personal data, access should be denied by default to all users except those required to conduct online transactions (e.g., the apache user for the Apache Web server). On a system that supports team-based development, permissions obviously need to be set that allow the exchange of data between team partners but prevent the access to development files by others. Very few Solaris systems would allow a default worldwriteable policy on any file system, except for the temporary swap (/tmp) file system. Enforcing system-wide permissions is possible by using a default umask, which sets the read, write, and execute permissions on all new files created by a specific user. If a user wishes to use a umask other than the default system-wide setting, the user can achieve this by setting it on the command line when required, or in the user s shell startup file (e.g., .kshrc for Korn shell). We start our examination of Solaris file permissions by examining how to create files, set permissions, change ownerships and group memberships, and how to use the ls command to examine existing file permissions. All of these commands can be used by nonprivileged users, except for the chown command.
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You need to know the following procedures to be able to understand the shell and file permissions.
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Some expert users prefer not to separate user and permission information by using the user symbols (o, u, g) and the permission symbols (r, w, x). Instead, these users choose to use a numeric code to combine both user and permission information. If you use a lot of common permissions settings, it may be easier for you to remember a single octal code than to work out the permissions string symbolically. The octal code consists of three numbers, which represent owner permissions, group permissions, and other user permissions, respectively (from left to right). Using the equivalence of 4 = r, 2 = w, and 1 = x, any cumulative combination of these provides the octal mode. For example, to set a file to have read, write, and execute permissions for the file owner, you can use the octal code 700 with the chmod command:
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$ chmod 700 *
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You can now check to see if the correct permissions have been granted:
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$ ls -l total 4 drwx------rwx------
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