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ne of the most frustrating aspects of setting a strict security policy is that some actions that require a form of access privilege must occasionally be undertaken by nonprivileged users. Although you don t want normal users to have all of root s privileges, for obvious reasons, there are occasions when normal users could conveniently and securely perform certain actions without jeopardizing system integrity. In other words, a number of specific roles require superuser privileges, which you may need to grant to users who should not have complete root access. In early Solaris versions, the solution to this problem was to prevent normal users from having any kind of privileged access. Normal users, for example, could not eject a floppy disk or CD-ROM drive without root access! However, this draconian solution just led to the root password being shared around to every user who needed to eject a floppy (not very security-conscious!). Alternatively, applications can be compiled as setuid root, allowing an unprivileged user to execute specific commands as the root user, without requiring a password. This approach is fine, as long as the scope of the application is restricted. A given user running any application with the setuid bit can cause a buffer overflow to compromise and obtain overall privileged access. For example, any application that allows the effective user to spawn a shell is not suited to be setuid root, because an unprivileged user could then spawn a root shell without a password. Relying on a single superuser to protect a system s resources is one of the great strengths and weaknesses of UNIX and UNIX-like systems. More often than not, operations on a system can be classified as being associated with a specific role. For example, a network administrator who is responsible for backups needs write access really only to tape devices, not to any local file systems, other than for spooling. Thus, a backup role can have its scope limited in a way that doesn t overlap with a printer administrator, who needs to be able to manage print jobs and write to spooling areas, while being denied write access to tape drives. Identifying tasks and roles is the first step to ensuring that privileges are granted only to those who need them. Three approaches are commonly used to provide role-based access to Solaris systems: installing Trusted Solaris, installing sudo, or using the Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) features built into Solaris. Using Trusted Solaris requires a new operating system installation, to take advantage of its role-based features, which build on top of
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RBAC by introducing security labels, ranging from top secret to unclassified. In contrast, sudo is a small utility that you can download and install, providing a simple role-based access system. However, RBAC provides a system for role-based access that is integrated into the operating system, providing a superior solution to sudo.
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sudo allows privileged roles to be assigned to various users by maintaining a database of privileges mapped to usernames. These privileges are identified by sets of different commands listed in the database. In order to access a privileged item, a qualified user simply needs to re-enter their own password (not the root password) after the command name has been entered on the command line. sudo permits a user to format disks, for instance, but have no other root privileges. sudo can be obtained from http:// www.courtesan.com/sudo/. One of the most useful features of sudo is its logging. By maintaining a logfile of all operations performed using the sudo facility, system administrators can audit the logfile and trace any actions that may have had unintended consequences. This is something that the normal su facility does not provide. Alternatively, patterns of malicious behavior can also be identified: sudo logs all successful and unsuccessful attempts to perform privileged actions. This can be very important in a security context, because brute-force attacks against weak passwords of unprivileged accounts might now be able to access some superuser functions through sudo. Thus, if the user nobody is given access via sudo to format disks, and the password for the user nobody is guessed, an intruder would be able to format disks on the system without requiring the root password. In addition, because the effective user ID of a user executing a privileged application through sudo is set to zero (i.e., the superuser), such applications should not allow shells to be spawned. All of the roles in sudo are independent. Thus, granting one or more roles to one user and one or more roles to another is possible. User roles can be shared, or they may be completely separate. For example, the user harry may have the privilege to format disks, and the user butler may have the privilege to both format disks and write to tape drives. To access these privileges, harry and butler do not need to know the root password. sudo has some limitations, and that s why you need RBAC. For example, it s not possible to stipulate that a user can only execute a single command on a specific file or set of files, and have no other privileges. It might be possible to wrap up some commands and permissions in a shell script, but doing this on a per-user, per-file basis would be time-consuming.
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