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Associated with the concept of overlapping roles are the notions of authority and operational responsibility. Two individuals may use similar roles to carry out mutually exclusive operations. For example, a clerk in a supermarket may be allowed to enter cash transactions into the cash register, but only a supervisor can void transactions already entered. Conversely, a supervisor cannot enter cash transactions, because the organizational requirements mandate a separation of supervisory and procedural roles, even though both operate on the same set of data and devices. Clearly, these roles and their associated operations must be defined offline before being implemented using the Solaris RBAC facility. A profile is a specific command or set of commands for which an authorization can be granted. These authorizations are linked together to form a role, which is in turn associated with a single user, or a number of different users, as shown in Figure 11-2. Profiles can list files as well, and can be executed several ways: The new pfexec command can be used to execute a single command contained in a profile. Commands in profiles can be executed through new, restricted versions of the standard shells, such as pfsh (profile Bourne shell) and pfcsh (profile C shell). A new user account for each role can be created, with its own home directory and password. To execute commands contained in a profile, users who have access to the role can just su to the new account they are not allowed to log in directly. Note that if two users su to the same role account, they will both be operating on the same files and could potentially overwrite each other s data. The same is true for the normal root account. However, one difference between using su to access a role and using su to access a normal account is auditing all of the operations carried out when using su to access a role are logged with the user s original UID. Thus, the operations of individual users who access roles can be logged (and audited) distinctively.
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NOTE You can t directly log in to a role account.
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FIGURE 11-1
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Let s look more closely at authorizations before examining how they are assigned to different roles. An authorization is a privilege, defined in the file /etc/security/auth_attr, that is granted to a role to allow that role to perform operations. Some applications allow RBAC authorizations to be checked before allowing an action to be performed, including the device-management commands (e.g., allocate and deallocate), as well as the batch-processing commands (e.g., at, crontab).
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Profiles and authorizations are associated with roles that are granted to individual users.
Part III:
Security
Authorizations have a form similar to Internet domain names: reading from left to right, the company name is followed by more specific package and function information. For example, net.cassowary.* is an authorization that pertains to any function supplied by the vendor cassowary.net. By default, all Solaris packages are identified by the prefix solaris. Thus, the authorization for changing passwords is identified as solaris.admin.usermgr.pswd rather than the longer com.sun.solaris.admin.usermgr.pswd. Many authorizations are fine-grained, allowing read access but not write access, and vice versa. For example, a Primary Administrator may have the solaris.admin.usermgr.read and solaris.admin.usermgr.write authorizations that allow read and write access, respectively, to user configuration files. However, an SA may be granted the solaris.admin.usermgr.read authorization but not the solaris.admin.usermgr.write authorization, effectively preventing him or her from changing the contents of user configuration files, even if they have read access to the same files. The following examples show some of the common solaris.admin authorizations currently defined:
solaris.admin.fsmgr.:::Mounts and Shares:: solaris.admin.fsmgr.read:::View Mounts and Shares::help=AuthFsmgrRead.html solaris.admin.fsmgr.write:::Mount and Share Files::help=AuthFsmgrWrite.html solaris.admin.logsvc.:::Log Viewer:: solaris.admin.logsvc.purge:::Remove Log Files::help=AuthLogsvcPurge.html solaris.admin.logsvc.read:::View Log Files::help=AuthLogsvcRead.html solaris.admin.logsvc.write:::Manage Log Settings::help=AuthLogsvcWrite.html solaris.admin.serialmgr.:::Serial Port Manager:: solaris.admin.usermgr.:::User Accounts:: solaris.admin.usermgr.pswd:::Change Password::help=AuthUserMgrPswd.html solaris.admin.usermgr.read:::View Users and Roles:: help=AuthUsermgrRead.html solaris.admin.usermgr.write:::Manage Users::help=AuthUsermgrWrite.html
You can see that several authorizations have been defined for solaris.admin, including file system management (fsmgr), logging system management (logsvc), port management (serialmgr), and user management (userxmgr). The corresponding help files are also listed. An important aspect of authorizations is the capability to transfer permissions to other users by using the grant keyword. Once grant is attached to the end of an authorization string, it enables the delegation of authorizations to other users. For example, the solaris.admin.usermgr.grant authorization, in conjunction with solaris.admin.usermgr.pswd, allows password changing to be performed by a delegated user. How do roles, profiles, and authorizations fit together Figure 11-3 shows the flow of data from authorizations and command definitions, through to the association of authorizations to specific profiles, which are in turn utilized by users who have been assigned various roles. The sense in which RBAC abstracts users from directly using commands and authorizations is shown by the dotted lines in the diagram. In this diagram, it is easy to see how central roles are in systems where profiles for different tasks are well defined.
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