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Role-Based Access Control
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FIGURE 11-3
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Integrating roles, profiles, and authorizations
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Operations
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The following operations are commonly performed when implementing RBAC.
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sudo
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The sudo facility is configured by the file /etc/sudoers. This file contains a list of all users who have access to the sudo facility and defines their privileges. A typical entry in /etc/ sudoers looks like this:
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jdoe ALL=(ALL) ALL
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This entry gives the user jdoe access to all applications as the superuser. For the user jdoe to run commands as the superuser, she simply needs to prefix the command string with sudo. Thus, to execute the format command as root, jdoe would enter the following command string:
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$ sudo format
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Part III:
Security
The following output will then be displayed:
We trust you have received the usual lecture from the local System Administrator. It usually boils down to these two things: #1) Respect the privacy of others. #2) Think before you type. Password:
If jdoe correctly types in her normal password, the format command will execute with root privileges. If jdoe incorrectly types her password up to three times, the following messages appear after each prompt:
Take a stress pill and think things over. Password: You silly, twisted boy you. Password: He has fallen in the water! Password not entered correctly
At this point, an alert is e-mailed to the superuser, informing them of the potential security breach repeated login attempts of this kind may signal a password-guessing attack by a rogue user. Equally, it could indicate that someone is incorrectly typing their password (perhaps the CAPS LOCK key is on) or that they are entering the root password rather than their own. In order to list all of the privileges currently allowed for a user, that user simply needs to run sudo with the l option:
$ sudo -l You may run the following commands on this host: (ALL) ALL
In addition to granting full superuser access, sudo can more usefully delegate authority to specific individuals. For example, you can create command aliases that correspond to the limited set of commands that sudoers can execute:
Cmnd_Alias TCPD=/usr/sbin/tcpd
In this case, you are giving users control over the TCP daemon. You can also specify a group of users other than ALL that share the ability to execute different classes of commands:
User_Alias User_Alias DEVELOPERS=pwatters,tgibbs ADMINS=maya,natashia
11:
Role-Based Access Control
Thus, the DEVELOPERS group can be assigned access to specific facilities that are not available to ADMINS. Putting it all together, you can create complex user specifications like this:
ADMINS ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL DEVELOPERS ALL=TCPD
This specification allows ADMINS to perform operations without a password, while giving developers privileges to operate on the TCP daemon. Notice that we ve included administrators in the user specification, even though these users probably know the root password. This is because sudo leaves an audit trail for every command executed, meaning that you can trace actions to a specific user account. This makes it easy to find out which individual is responsible for system problems. Of course, these administrators can just use the su facility to bypass the sudo facility, if they know the root password. This is the main drawback of using sudo on Solaris it is not integrated into the operating system, but rather is just an application.
RBAC
Common operations performed in the context of RBAC include setting up profiles and defining roles. The following commands are commonly used: smexec Create, read, update, and delete rows in the exec_attr database smmultiuser smprofile smrole rolemod roledel roleadd Perform batch functions smuser Perform operations on user accounts Create, read, update, and delete profiles in the prof_attr database Modify roles Delete roles Add roles Create, read, update, and delete role accounts
The prof_attr database contains all of the profile definitions for the system. For example, profiles might be created for the Primary Administrator, System Administrator, Operator, Basic Solaris User, and Printer Manager. A special profile is the All Rights profile, which is associated with all commands that have no security restrictions enforced on their use. This is the default profile, which covers all commands not designated as requiring specific authorization. In contrast, the PA is granted explicit rights over all security-related commands and operations, as defined by the solaris.* authorization. The PA can then delegate tasks to other users where appropriate if the solaris.grant authorization is granted. The scope of the PA can be limited if this role is considered too close in power to the superuser. The SA, in contrast, has a much more limited role. Specific authorizations are granted to the SA, rather than using wildcards to allow complete access. Typical commands
Part III:
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