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Users, Groups, and the Sun Management Console
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Home directory The default file storage location for all files created by a particular user. If the automounter is used, then home directories may be exported using NFS on /home. When a user spawns a login shell, the current working directory is always the home directory. Login shell Can be used to issue commands interactively or to write simple programs. A number of different shells are available under Solaris, including the Bourne shell (sh), C-shell (csh), the Bourne Again Shell (bash), and the Cornell shell (tcsh). The choice of shell depends largely on personal preference, user experience with C-like programming constructs, and terminal handling. Comment Typically, this is the user s full name, such as Paul Watters. However, system accounts may use names that describe their purpose (e.g., the comment Web Server might be associated with the apache user).
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Solaris provides a facility for identifying sets of related users into groups. Each user is associated with a primary GID, which is associated with a name. The group name and GID can be used interchangeably. In addition, users can be associated with one or more secondary groups. This flexibility means that although a user might have a primary group membership based on their employment or organizational status (e.g., staff or managers ), they can actively share data and system privileges with other groups based on their workgroup needs (e.g., sales or engineer ). All information about groups in Solaris is stored in the groups database (/etc/group). The following is a typical set of groups:
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# cat /etc/group root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp staff::10:paul,maya,brad,natashia postgres:a.mBzQnr1ei2D.:100:postgres, paul daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
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You can see that the lower group numbers are associated with all the system functions and accounts, such as the bin group, which has the members root, bin, and daemon, and
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the sys group, which has the members root, bin, sys, and adm. Higher-numbered groups, such as staff, contain several different users, such as paul, maya, brad, and natashia. Notice also that paul has a secondary group membership in the postgres group, giving him database access privileges. A group password can also be set for each group to restrict access, although most groups don t use this facility. In this group database, you can see that the postgres group is the only group that has an encrypted password (a.mBzQnr1ei2D.). You can obtain a list of all groups that a user belongs to by using the groups command. For example, to view all the groups that the root user belongs to, use this command:
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# groups root other root bin sys adm uucp mail tty lp nuucp daemon
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Passwords
All Solaris users have a username and password associated with their account, except where a user account has been explicitly locked (designated *LK*) or a system account has been specified not to have a password at all (NP). Many early exploits of Solaris systems were associated with default passwords used on some system accounts, and the most common method of gaining unauthorized access to a Solaris system remains password cracking and/or guessing. This section examines the password database (/etc/passwd) and its more secure counterpart, the shadow database (/etc/shadow). It also presents strategies for making passwords safer. The standard password database is stored in the file /etc/passwd, and it looks like this:
# cat /etc/passwd root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/: noaccess:x:60002:60002:No Access User:/: nobody4:x:65534:65534:SunOS 4.x Nobody:/: postgres:x:1001:100:Postgres User:/usr/local/postgres:/bin/sh htdig:x:1002:10:htdig:/opt/www:/usr/local/bin/bash apache:x:1003:10:apache user:/usr/local/apache:/bin/sh
You have already seen some of the fields shown here when adding users to the system: The username field, which has a maximum of eight characters. The encrypted password field, which in a system using shadow passwords is crossed with an x.
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