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The user ID field, which contains the numeric and unique UID. The primary group ID field, which contains the numeric GID. The user comment, which contains a description of the user. The path to the user s home directory. The user s default shell. In older versions of Solaris, the encrypted password field would have contained an encrypted password string like X14oLaiYg7bO2. However, this presented a security problem, because the login program required all users to have read access to the password file:
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# ls -l /etc/passwd -rw-r--r-1 root sys 605 Jul 24 11:04 /etc/passwd
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Thus, any user with the lowest form of privilege would be able to access the encrypted password field for the root user and attempt to gain root access by guessing the password. A number of programs were specifically developed for this purpose, such as crack, which takes a standard Solaris password file and uses a dictionary and some clever lexical rules to guess passwords (note that crack is not supplied with the Solaris distribution). Once a rogue user obtains a root password, he or she may perform any operation on a Solaris system, including formatting hard disks, installing Trojan horses, launching attacks on other systems, and so on. The cryptographic algorithm used by Solaris is not easy to crack. Indeed, a brute-force guess of a password composed of a completely random set of characters would take many CPU years to compute. The task would be made even more difficult (if not impossible) if the root password were changed weekly, again with a random set of characters. However, the reality is that most users enter passwords that are easily guessed from a dictionary or from some knowledge about the user. Because users are constantly required to use PINs and passwords, they generally choose passwords that are easy to remember. However, easily remembered passwords are also the easiest to crack. Solaris has reduced the chances of a rogue user obtaining the password file in the first place, by implementing a shadow password facility. This creates a file called /etc/ shadow, which is similar to the password file (/etc/passwd), but is readable only by root and contains the encrypted password fields for each UID. Thus, if a rogue user cannot obtain the encrypted password entries, using them as the basis for a crack attack is very difficult. UNIX passwords are created by calling the crypt function, which requires a salt and the password to create an encrypted string. Because the crypt function is one-way (i.e., it is not mathematically reversible), there is no corresponding function called decrypt. Thus, the only way to obtain a password from an encrypted string is by passing the salt plus a guess string containing what you think the password might be and seeing if the encrypted string generated matches the one stored in the shadow password file. In this case, guess strings are often generated by reading a dictionary file containing thousands of possible passwords or by using a list of commonly used passwords (such as root, system, manager, tiger, and so on).
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The Solaris Management Console (SMC) is designed as a replacement for the admintool, which was used in versions of Solaris prior to Solaris 9. admintool provided a limited and nonextensible set of tools for GUI system management. The motivation for providing GUI tools to seasoned command-line hackers may seem unclear however, SMC provides methods for managing a large number of servers from a single interface and provides easy methods for extending the functionality of the core interface. This means you can add customized applications to the toolbox, or to the collection of administration applications for a specific system, by using the appropriate commands. SMC may not be of great benefit to administrators who manage a single system it is an advanced tool that suits sites that deal with large numbers of systems. SMC allows you to manage system and application packages, along with users and groups. You can manage multiple systems from a single system and user interface based on Java. SMC enables you to reboot or shut down managed systems, set their root passwords, enable Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) support, and administer naming services like Domain Name Service (DNS). You can review processes in real time, along with system resources, such as virtual and physical memory. The following administrative tasks can be performed by software contained within SMC toolboxes: Assign rights and roles to users Configure and format new disks for the system, including laying out partitions and copying configurations from one disk to another in preparation for RAID Create a single user account or generate multiple accounts using a consistent specification Create new groups or modify existing groups Create user policies and apply them Execute jobs in real time or schedule them for regular, repeated execution Install support for serial ports, modems, and related Physical layer technologies such as PPP Monitor processes and search for resumed, deleted, or suspended processes Review system logs and search for anomalous or suspicious entries Set up mailing lists View mounted file systems These management operations and applications are not provided intrinsically by SMC however, SMC provides an interface to access them.
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