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Kerberos and Pluggable Authentication
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ftp rcp rdist rlogin rsh telnet Every host, user, or service that interacts with the KDC is known as a principal. The principal includes both a user s realm and their current instance, or role. Thus, pwatters/ root@cassowary.net identifies the user pwatters having the current instance root in the realm cassowary.net, while pwatters/ftp@cassowary.net would denote the same physical user with the current instance of an FTP user.
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The goal of the Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) is to enable a stack framework for providing authentication services without requiring applications themselves to be modified. Historically, gaining improvements in distributed authentication, for example, has been very difficult because clients and servers need to be modified at the source level. For example, to use Kerberos, clients need to be Kerberized, which is difficult if you
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Distributed mechanisms for Kerberos 5 authentication
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only have access to application binaries. PAM ensures that there is an appropriate level of abstraction between the interface for authentication and its underlying implementation. Thus, an authentication service can be modified, upgraded, or changed without disturbing the applications and services that utilize authentication services. PAM provides support for password, session, credential, and account management. Let s look at an example of PAM usage. Applications that require user logins such as telnet, ftp, login, etc. require that users authenticate themselves with a username and password. But what if you want to apply a different authentication system for ftp logins compared to telnet logins With the default Solaris authentication system, you can t, but PAM allows you to. PAM also supports the use of multiple passwords for sensitive applications, and possibly multiple authentication types. For example, you could be asked to supply a credential (something you own), such as a smart card, supply a password (something you know), and pass a biometric face scan (something you are). This three-way process would provide the highest level of authentication possible but might land you in trouble if you forget your smart card! PAM s stack is shown in Figure 13-2. You can see two applications (telnet and rsh) using the PAM library, which is configured by /etc/pam.conf, making use of two alternative authentication systems Kerberos (module pam_krb5.so.1) and LDAP (module pam_ ldap.so.1). rsh could be configured to use LDAP, while telnet could be configured to use Kerberos (or both, if multiple authentication is required). If multiple authentication systems are used, then users may need to remember multiple passwords. One very important problem to note is that if you change authentication services for remote access, and you only have remote access to a system, and you make a mistake when configuring /etc/pam.conf, you may need to reboot the system into single-user mode and change the incorrect settings. This is very important when your systems are rack-mounted or located in an off-site facility. You should always keep the editing window for pam.conf open while testing a new connection in a second window.
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PAM stack structure for flexible authentication
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Kerberos and Pluggable Authentication
Procedures
The following procedures demonstrate how to configure Kerberos and PAM services on Solaris systems.
Kerberos
Kerberos is managed by several different applications, including the following: The management daemon, kadmind The ticketing daemon, krb5kdc The management application, kadmin Utilities such as ktutil and kdb5_util A GUI for administration, gkadmin, shown in Figure 13-3 Kerberos configuration, shown next, is reasonably straightforward given appropriate network resources. All configuration files are stored in /etc/krb5. The main configuration file is /etc/krb5/krb5.conf, which contains entries that define the realms that the server
FIGURE 13-3
Kerberos management tool, gkadmin
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is associated with, including the name of the primary and secondary KDC, and the admin server.
[libdefaults] default_realm = CASSOWARY.NET [realms] CASSOWARY.NET = { kdc = KERBEROS1.CASSOWARY.NET KERBEROS2.CASSOWARY.NET admin_server = KERBEROS1.CASSOWARY.NET } [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc_rotate = { period = 1d versions = 10 } [appdefaults] kinit = { renewable = true forwardable= true } gkadmin = { help_url = http://docs.sun.com:80/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/ @AB2PageView/1195 }
This configuration is for a default domain called cassowary.net, which has a logical admin and KDC server called kerberos1.cassowary.net, and a backup KDC server called kerberos2.cassowary.net. The configuration also sets a number of variables related to logging, including how often to rotate the logs and how many versions to retain before deletion. Individual applications such as kinit and gkadmin can also have their parameters set in the file. The KDC is configured by the file /etc/krb5/kdc.conf:
[kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] CASSOWARY.NET = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab
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