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After you enable fsck for a particular file system, you can execute it on that system. fsck checks the integrity of several features of the file system, the most significant of which is the superblock that stores summary information for the volume. Since the superblock is the most modified item on the file system being written and rewritten when data is changed on a disk, it is the most commonly corrupted feature. However, copies of the superblock are stored in many different locations to ensure that it can be reliably retrieved. The checks that fsck performs on the superblock include the following: A check of the file system size, which obviously must be greater than the size computed from the number of blocks identified in the superblock A check of the total number of inodes, which must be less than the maximum number of inodes A tally of reported free blocks and inodes If any of these values is identified as corrupt by fsck, the superuser can select one of the many superblock backups that were created during initial file system creation as a replacement for the current superblock. We will examine superblock corruption and how to fix it in the section fsck Operations, later in the chapter. In addition to the superblock, fsck also checks the number and status of cylinder group blocks, inodes, indirect blocks, and data blocks. Since free blocks are located by maps stored in the cylinder group, fsck verifies that all the blocks marked as free are not actually being used by any files if they are, files could be corrupted. If all blocks are correctly accounted for, fsck determines whether the number of free blocks plus the number of used blocks equals the total number of blocks in the file system. If fsck detects any incongruity, the maps of unallocated blocks are rebuilt, although there is obviously a risk of data loss whenever a disagreement over the actual state of the file system is encountered. fsck always uses the actual count of inodes and/or blocks if the superblock information is wrong, and it replaces the incorrect value if this is verified by the superuser. When fsck examines inodes, it does so sequentially and aims to identify inconsistencies in format and type, link count, duplicate blocks, bad block numbers, and inode size. Inodes should always be in one of three states: allocated (used by a file), unallocated (not used by a file), or partially allocated. Partially allocated means that during an allocation or deallocation procedure, data has been left behind that should have been deleted or completed. Alternatively, partial allocation could result from a physical hardware failure. In both cases, fsck attempts to clear the inode. The link count is the number of directory entries that are linked to a particular inode. fsck always checks that the number of directory entries listed is correct by examining the entire directory structure, beginning with the root directory, and tallying the number of links for every inode. Clearly, the stored link count and the actual link count should agree; however, the stored link count occasionally differs from the actual link count. This could result from a disk not being synchronized before a shutdown, for example, and while changes to the file system have been saved, the link count has not been correctly updated. If the stored count is not zero but the actual count is zero, disconnected
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files are placed in the lost+found directory found in the top level of the file system concerned. In other cases, the actual count replaces the stored count. An indirect block is a pointer to a list of every block claimed by an inode. fsck checks every block number against a list of allocated blocks: if two inodes claim the same block number, that block number is added to a list of duplicate block numbers. The administrator may be asked to choose which inode is correct obviously, picking the correct inode is a difficult and dangerous decision that usually indicates that it s time to verify files against backups. fsck also checks the integrity of the actual block numbers, which can also become corrupt. Block numbers should always lie in the interval between the first data block and the last data block. If a bad block number is detected, the inode is cleared. Directories are also checked for integrity by fsck. Directory entries are equivalent to other files on the file system, except they have a different mode entry in the inode. fsck checks the validity of directory data blocks, checking for the following problems: unallocated nodes associated with inode numbers; inode numbers that exceed the maximum number of inodes for a particular file system; incorrect inode numbers for the standard directory entries . and .. ; and directories that have been accidentally disconnected from the file system. fsck examines each disk volume in five distinct stages: 1. Checks blocks and sizes. 2. Verifies path names. 3. Examines connectivity. 4. Investigates reference counts. 5. Checks the cylinder groups.
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