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File System and Volume Management
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without giving users some kind of notice in fact, it s just not possible. It s also important to determine whether other processes are using files on the file system. In fact, umount requires that no processes have files open on the target file system. You can use the fuser command to determine which users are accessing a particular file system. For example, to determine whether any processes have open files on the /export/home partition, you could use the following command:
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# fuser -c /export/home
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To give a listing of the UIDs associated with each process, the following command could be used:
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# fuser -c -u /export/home
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To warn users about the impending unmounting of the file system, you can use the wall command to send a message to all logged-in users. For example, the following message could be sent:
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# wall Attention all users /export/home is going down for maintenance at 6:00 p.m. Please kill all processes accessing this file system (or I will)
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At 6 P.M., a fuser check should show that no processes are accessing the file system. However, if some users did not heed the warning, the fuser command can be used to kill all processes that are still active:
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# fuser -c -k /export/home
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This is obviously a drastic step, but it may be necessary in emergency or urgent repair situations. To save time, if you wish to unmount all user file systems (excluding /, /proc, /usr, and /var), you could use the umountall command:
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# umountall
This command unmounts only file systems that are listed in the virtual file system table, subject to the aforementioned exclusions.
fsck Operations
This section examines a full run of fsck, outlining the most common problems and how they are rectified. It also presents some examples of less-commonly encountered problems.
Part IV:
Managing Devices
On a SPARC 20 system, fsck for the / file system looks like this:
** /dev/rdsk/c0d0s0 ** Currently Mounted on / ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups FREE BLK COUNT(S) WRONG IN SUPERBLK SALVAGE
Clearly, the actual block count and the block count recorded in the superblock are at odds with each other. At this point, fsck requires superuser permission to install the actual block count in the superblock, which the administrator indicates by pressing Y. The scan continues with the /usr partition:
1731 files, 22100 used, 51584 free (24 frags, 6445 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation) ** /dev/rdsk/c0d0s6 ** Currently Mounted on /usr ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups FILE SYSTEM STATE IN SUPERBLOCK IS WRONG; FIX
In this case, the file system state in the superblock records is incorrect, and again, the administrator is required to give consent for it to be repaired. The scan then continues with the /var and /export/home partitions:
26266 files, 401877 used, 217027 free (283 frags, 27093 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation) ** /dev/rdsk/c0d0s1 ** Currently Mounted on /var ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups 1581 files, 4360 used, 25545 free (41 frags, 3188 blocks, 0.1% fragmentation) ** /dev/rdsk/c0d0s7
16:
File System and Volume Management
** Currently Mounted on /export/home ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups 2 files, 9 used, 7111589 free (13 frags, 888947 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
Obviously, the /var and /export/home partitions have passed examination by fsck and are intact. However, the fact that the / and /usr file systems were in an inconsistent state suggests that the file systems were not cleanly unmounted, perhaps during the last reboot. Fortunately, the superblock itself was intact. However, this is not always the case. In the following example, the superblock of /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2 has a bad magic number, indicating that it is damaged beyond repair:
# fsck /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2 BAD SUPER BLOCK: MAGIC NUMBER WRONG USE ALTERNATE SUPER-BLOCK TO SUPPLY NEEDED INFORMATION eg. fsck [-F ufs] -o b=# [special ...] where # is the alternate super block. SEE fsck_ufs(1M).
In this case, you need to specify one of the alternative superblocks that were created by the newfs command. When a file system is created, a message appears about the creation of superblock backups:
super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at: 32, 5264, 10496, 15728, 20960, 26192, 31424, 36656, 41888, 47120, 52352, 57584, 62816, 68048, 73280, 78512, 82976, 88208, 93440, 98672, 103904, 109136, 114368, 119600, 124832, 130064, 135296, 140528, 145760, 150992, 156224, 161456.
In the preceding example, you may need to specify one of these alternative superblocks so that the disk contents are once again readable. If you didn t record the superblock backups during the creation of the file system, you can easily retrieve them by using the newfs command (and using N to prevent the creation of a new file system):
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