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you copied files from the hard disk to the tape. If you use the defaults, there should be no problems, although you can specify a particular blocking factor by using the B directive.
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The dd program copies raw disk or tape slices block-by-block to other disk or tape slices; it is like cp for slices. It is often used for backing up disk slices to other disk slices and/or to a tape drive, and for copying tapes. To use dd, you must specify an input file, if, an output file, of, and a block size. For example, to copy the root partition (/) on /dev/rdsk/ c1t0d0s0 to /dev/rdsk/c1t4d0s0, you can use this command:
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# dd if=/dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s0 of=/dev/rdsk/c1t4d0s0 bs=128k
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To make the new partition bootable, you also need to use the installboot command after dd. Another use for dd is to back up tape data from one tape to another tape. This is particularly useful for re-creating archival backup tapes that may be aging. For example, to copy from tape drive 0 (/devrmt/0) to tape drive 2 (/dev/rmt/2), use this command:
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# dd if=/dev/rmt/0h of=/dev/rmt/1h
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It is also possible to copy the contents of a floppy drive by redirecting the contents of the floppy disk and piping it through dd:
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The Solaris command for taking snapshots is fssnap. The following example shows a snapshot stored in the backing-store of /snap for the / file system:
# fssnap -o backing-store=/snap / /dev/fssnap/0
The path to the backing-store can be a local file system, or even one remotely mounted over NFS to a RAID file system, providing high availability and large amounts of storage for remote systems on a central server. The preceding operation can be repeated for each of the file systems you want to snap, as shown next for the /export file system:
# fssnap -o backing-store=/snap /export /dev/fssnap/1
To examine the status of the snapshot, you can use the enquiry mode of fssnap:
# fssnap -i / Snapshot number Block Device
: 0 : /dev/fssnap/0
Part IV:
Managing Devices
Raw Device Mount point Device state Backing store path Backing store size Maximum backing store size Snapshot create time Copy-on-write granularity
: : : : : : : :
/dev/rfssnap/0 / idle /snap/snapshot0 4096 KB Unlimited Wed Jun 30 12:05:02 2004 64 KB
If you don t have access to a RAID system for storing snapshots, you can always archive them using a normal ufsdump backup, as shown next for the / file system snapshot:
# ufsdump 0cu /dev/rmt/0 'fssnap -F ufs -o raw,bs=/snap,unlink /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0'
Examples
The following examples show how to perform backup and restore operations.
Using ufsdump and ufsrestore
ufsdump and ufsrestore are standard backup and restore applications for UNIX file systems. ufsdump is often set to run from cron jobs late at night to minimize load on server systems. ufsrestore is normally run in single-user mode after a system crash. ufsdump can be run on a mounted file system; however, it may be wise to unmount it first, perform a file system check (using fsck), remount it, and then perform the backup. The key concept in planning ufsdumps is the dump level of any particular backup. The dump level determines whether ufsdump performs a full or incremental dump. A full dump is represented by a dump level of 0, while the numbers 1 through 9 can be arbitrarily assigned to incremental dump levels. The only restriction on the assignment of dump level numbers for incremental backups is their numerical relationship to each other: a high number should be used for normal daily incremental dumps, followed once a week by a lower number that specifies that the process should be restarted. This approach uses the same set of tapes for all files, regardless of which day they were recorded on. For example, Monday through Saturday would have a dump level of 9, while Sunday would have a dump level of 1. After cycling through incremental backups during the weekdays and Saturday, the process starts again on Sunday. Some organizations like to separate each day s archive in a single tape. This makes it easier to recover work from an incremental dump, where speed is important, and/or whether or not backups from a particular day need to be retrieved. For example, one user may want to retrieve a version of a file that was edited on a Wednesday and the following Thursday, but want only the version prior to the latest (Wednesday). The Wednesday tape can then be used in conjunction with ufsdump to retrieve the file. A weekly full dump is scheduled to occur on Sunday, when few people are using the system. Thus,
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