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Copyright 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
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By supporting many different types of hardware devices and connection technologies, and by implementing standards-based networking software, Solaris provides a flexible platform for supporting high-level network services and applications. These will be explored in detail in the following chapters.
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The two most common forms of network topology are the star network and the ring network. The ring topology, shown in Figure 21-1, is a peer-to-peer topology, where neighboring hosts are connected and data is exchanged between distant hosts by passing data from the source host to the target host through all intermediate hosts. Ring networks are most suitable for networks in which long distances separate individual hosts. However, if only one of the links between hosts is broken, then data transmission between all hosts can be interrupted. In contrast, a star network has a centralized topology, where all hosts connect to a central point and exchange data at that point, as shown in Figure 21-2. This topology has the advantage of minimizing the number of hops that data must travel from a source to a target host, compared to a ring network. In addition, if one link is broken, then only data originating from or sent to the host on that link will be disrupted. However, if the point at which hosts are connected breaks down, then all data transmission will cease. In practice, most modern high-speed networks are based on star topologies. When connecting local area networks (LANs) together to form intranets, a star topology has the advantage of being able to interconnect networks by their central connection points. This means that data sent from a host on one network must travel to its central point, which then sends the data to the connection point on a remote network, which then passes the data to the remote target host. Thus, only three hops are required to exchange data between hosts on two networks when using a star topology. A sample data flow is shown in Figure 21-3. Let s look at a specific example of how an internet can be laid out, before we examine how OSI and the Solaris implementation of TCP/IP make this possible. Imagine that a Web server runs on the host 203.54.68.21 while a Web client (such as Netscape Navigator) runs on the host 203.54.67.122. Since these two hosts are located on two different local
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FIGURE 21-1
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FIGURE 21-2
Star network topology
area (Class C) networks, they must be interconnected by a router. In the star topology, a connection point must allow a link to each host on the local network in this example, a hub is used to connect each host, as well as to forward all data bound for nonlocal addresses to the router. Thus, when a high-level Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request is sent from the client 203.54.67.122 to the server 203.54.68.21, a packet is sent to the hub, which detects that the destination is nonlocal and forwards the packet to the router. The router then forwards the packet to the router for the remote network, which detects that the destination is local and passes the packet to the hub, which in turn passes it to the server. Since HTTP is a request/response protocol, the backward path is traced when a response to the request is generated by the server. The configuration for this example is shown in Figure 21-4.
FIGURE 21-3
Interconnecting networks
Part V:
Networking
FIGURE 21-4
Supporting high-level services
If this example seems complex, you ll be pleased to know that the implementation of many of these services is hidden from users, and most often from developers. This makes implementing networking applications very simple when using high-level protocols like HTTP. For example, consider the following Java code, which uses HTTP to make a connection to a remote server running an application called StockServer. After passing the name of a stock in the URL, the current price should be returned by the server. The code fragment shows the definition for the URL, a declaration for an input stream, reading a line from the stream and assigning the result to a variable (stockPrice), and closing the stream. If this code were contained in an applet, for example, the stockPrice for SUNW could then be displayed.
String stockURL="http://data.cassowary.net/servlet/StockServer code=SUNW"; URL u = new URL(stockURL); BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(u.openStream())); String stockPrice=in.readLine(); in.close();
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