Basic Networking in Software

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Basic Networking
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A further level of abstraction is provided by Web Services and the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), which uses HTTP as a transport protocol for transmitting requests to execute Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) in a platform-independent way. This approach has some similarities to working directly at the HTTP level, since a URL can be used to execute the SOAP request, but the data is returned in a standard XML format. The following URL, for example, is used to retrieve the stock price for Sun Microsystems from XML Today: http://www.xmltoday.com/examples/stockquote/getxmlquote.vep s=SUNW The data returned from this request can be parsed and its tags can be interpreted by a client program:
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<stock_quotes> <stock_quote> <symbol>SUNW</symbol> <when> <date>10/30/2002</date> <time>3:06pm</time> </when> <price type="ask" value="2.50" /> <price type="open" value="2.60" /> <price type="dayhigh" value="2.60" /> <price type="daylow" value="2.49" /> <change>-0.10</change> <volume>5768644</volume> </stock_quote> </stock_quotes>
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As discussed in 33, Web Services will become more commonly used in future versions of Solaris, and related enterprise applications, so it s useful to understand how they work and how they relate to underlying networking protocols.
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Building networks is complex, given the wide array of hardware and software that can be used to implement them. The OSI networking model, shown in Figure 21-5, provides a framework for defining the scope of different layers of networking technology, which can be used to understand how different protocols and suites (such as TCP/IP) operate. Each layer of the model, starting from the bottom, supports the functionality required by the top levels. Moving from bottom to top, operations become more and more abstracted from their physical implementation. It is this abstraction that allows HTTP and other high-level protocols to operate without being concerned about low-level implementations. The OSI networking model allows for different instantiations of lower levels, without requiring higher-level code to be rewritten.
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FIGURE 21-5
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Starting from the bottom of the model, the following list describes the layers: Physical (Layer 1) Defines how data is exchanged at its very basic level (bits and bytes), as well as cabling requirements. Data Link (Layer 2) Defines the apparatus for transferring data, including error checking and synchronization. Network (Layer 3) Specifies operational issues, such as how networks can exchange data, as shown in Figures 21-3 and 21-4. Transport (Layer 4) Specifies how individual computers are to interpret data received from the network. Session (Layer 5) Determines how data from different sources can be separated, and how associations between hosts can be maintained. Presentation (Layer 6) Specifies how different types of data are formatted and how that data should be exposed. Application (Layer 7) Describes how high-level applications can communicate with each other in a standard way.
21:
Basic Networking
TCP/IP Networking
The TCP/IP suite of protocols forms the basis of all Internet communications, and was originally devised as part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for the ARPANET. While TCP/IP is the default networking protocol supported by Solaris, other operating systems also support TCP/IP, even if it is not their primary protocol. For example, Microsoft Windows networks support NetBEUI and IPX/SPX, while MacOS supports AppleTalk. The default networking protocol for Linux and Solaris is TCP/IP. TCP/IP presents a simpler interface than OSI, since only the Application, Transport, Network, and Link layers need to be addressed. TCP/IP is layered, just like the OSI reference model. Thus, when a client application needs to communicate with a server, a process is initiated of passing data down each level on the client side, from the Application layer to the Physical layer, and up each level on the server side, from the Physical layer to the Application layer. Data is passed between layers in service data units. However, it s important to note that each client layer logically only ever communicates with the corresponding server layer, as demonstrated by the Java code presented earlier in the chapter: the Application layer is not concerned with logically communicating with the Physical layer, for example. Abstraction is the core benefit of TCP/IP in development and communication terms, since each level is logically isolated, while methods for supporting service data are also well defined. We ll now review the key layers as they are implemented in the Solaris TCP/IP stack and Ethernet.
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