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The mechanism for preventing packet collision is the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) method specified by the IEEE standard. Prior to data being transmitted, a station must enter Carrier Sense (CS) mode. If no data is detected on the channel, then all stations have an equal opportunity to transmit a frame, a condition known as Multiple Access (MA). If two or more stations begin transmitting frames and
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detect that they are transmitting at the same time, a state known as Collision Detection (CD), then the stations halt transmission, enter the CS mode, and wait for the next MA opportunity. Collisions can occur because there is a time difference between when two stations might detect MA, depending on their distance in the network. When a collision occurs, the frames must be re-sent by their respective parties. The process flow for CSMA/CD is shown in Figure 21-6. When systematic problems emerge in a LAN, demonstrated by much lower than theoretical transmission rates, a design flaw in the network layout could be causing a large number of collisions. You might be wondering how, if a CD event occurs, two stations can prevent retransmitting at the same time in the future, thereby repeating their previous collision the answer is that the delay between retransmission is randomized for each network interface. This prevents repetitive locking, and delivery of a packet will always be attempted 16 times before a failure occurs. When more stations are added to a single LAN, the number of collisions occurring will also increase. With high-speed networks, the delay caused by retransmission of a packet is usually in the order of microseconds rather than milliseconds. If the number of retransmissions escalates, then there is a planned, exponential reduction in network traffic, affecting all stations, until stable operation is restored.
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FIGURE 21-6
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One of the important things to note about Ethernet, with respect to quality of service issues, is that it is not a guaranteed delivery system, unlike some other networking systems. This is because Ethernet operates on the principle of best effort, given the available resources. Ethernet is susceptible to electrical artifacts, interference, and a number of other problems that may interfere with data transmission. However, for most practical purposes, Ethernet performs very well. If assured delivery is required, then higher-level application protocols, based on message queuing for example, would need to be implemented across Ethernet to have guaranteed delivery. Transport layer protocols such as TCP label each packet with a sequence number to ensure that all packets are received and reassembled in the correct order. Ethernet has a logical topology, or tree-like structure, that is distinct from the set of physical interfaces that are interconnected using networking cable. One of the implications of this tree-like structure is that individual branches can be segmented in order to logically isolate structural groups. This structure also allows a large number of unrelated networks to be connected to each other, forming the basis of the Internet as we know it. Individual network branches can be linked together by using a repeater of some kind such as a hub. In contrast, a switch only takes traffic destined to one of its ports. The Ethernet channel can be extended beyond the local boundaries imposed by a single branch. A hub only connects interfaces on a single segment, while a switch can interconnect multiple LANs. A LAN router is needed when connecting multiple logical LANs.
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Ethernet Frames
The main data structure utilized by Ethernet is the frame. The frame has a number of defined fields that specify elements like the MAC addresses for the destination and originating hosts in a packet transmission. The advantage in this ordering is that only the first 48 bits of a packet need to be read by a host to determine whether a packet received has reached its ultimate destination. If the destination MAC address does not match the local MAC address, then the contents of the packet do not need to be read. However, the snoop command can be used to extract the content of packets that are not destined for the local MAC address, assuming that you are using a hub and not a switch. This is why it s important to encrypt the contents of packets being transmitted across the Internet they can be trivially sniffed by using programs like snoop. In addition to the destination and originating MAC addresses, the frame also contains a data field, of 46 to 1,500 bytes, and a cyclic redundancy check of 4 bytes. The data field contains all of the data encapsulated by higher-level protocols, such as IP.
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