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Structure of IP datagrams
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requiring high-speed, high-reliability, or maximum bandwidth. Bits 0 through 2 are responsible for determining the message priority, with the following values being supported: 000 001 010 011 100 101 111 Normal traffic Priority traffic Immediate traffic Flash traffic Flash override traffic Critical traffic Network control traffic
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110 Internet control traffic
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Bits 3 through 5 specify whether low (0) or high (1) priority be given to speed, bandwidth, or reliability, respectively, while the last two bits are reserved. The Total Packet Length is specified by a 16-bit number, which has a maximum of 65,535 bytes. However, this value is largely theoretical since framing through hardware layers (such as Ethernet and modems) sets this value to be much lower in practice. Large packets need to be fragmented that s where the Identification, Fragmentation Flags, and Fragmentation Offsets come into play. The Identification field is a 16-bit identifying number for reassembly. The Fragmentation Flag is a 3-bit number that indicates whether a packet may or may not be fragmented, and whether the current fragment is the last fragment or other fragments are yet to be transmitted. The Fragmentation Offsets is a 13-bit number that indicates where a fragment lies in the sequence of fragments to be reconstructed. The Time to Live specifies the number of hops permitted before the packet expires and is dropped. The Protocol number (defined in /etc/protocols) specifies which protocol is to be used for data definition. The supported protocols are shown in Table 21-1.
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Basic Networking
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Name ip icmp ggp tcp egp pup udp hmp xns-idp rdp TABLE 21-1
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Number 0 1 3 6 8 12 17 20 22 27
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Acronym IP ICMP GGP TCP EGP PUP UDP HMP XNS-IDP RDP
Description Internet Protocol Internet Control Message Protocol Gateway-Gateway Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Exterior Gateway Protocol PARC Universal Packet Protocol User Datagram Protocol Host Monitoring Protocol Xerox Network System IDP Reliable Datagram Protocol
Supported Solaris Protocols
The Header Checksum determines whether the packet header has been corrupted, by using a cyclic redundancy check. The Originating Address and Target Address are the IP addresses of the source and destination hosts, respectively, for the packet. A set of options up to 40 bytes can also be specified in the header, although these options are not always used. The following options are available: End of Option list Marks the end of the list of options, since it can be a variable length list No Operation Security Defines the boundary between options The origin provides routing that may be followed The origin provides routing that must be followed Used to specify security levels for the traffic
Loose Source Routing Strict Source Routing Record Route Stream Identifier
Stores the route of a datagram Used to support streaming Records the time in milliseconds since the start of UT
Internet Timestamp
The following security levels are defined: 00000000 00000000 11110001 00110101 01111000 10011010 10111100 01001101 01011110 00100110 10101111 00010011 Unclassified Confidential EFTO MMMM PROG Restricted
Part V:
Networking
11010111 10001000 01101011 11000101
Secret Top Secret
The correct interpretation of these levels can be determined from the Defense Intelligence Agency Manual DIAM 65-19. A more accessible reference is MIL-STD-2411-1, the Registered Data Values for Raster Product Format specification (http://www.nima.mil/publications/ specs/printed/2411/2411_1.pdf). The packet can be padded to ensure that the length of the header is 32 bits where necessary and that it separates the header from the packet data. In order to check whether IP packets are being transmitted correctly between a source and destination network interface, and all intermediate routers, you can use the traceroute command. Note that traceroute does not display the contents of packet headers and data as does the snoop command.
Transport Layer
The interface between the Application layer and the Internet layer in the TCP/IP stack is the Transport layer. This layer implements protocols to transport packets in applicationspecific ways, depending on the individual requirements of the application. The two most commonly used transport protocols are TCP and UDP. TCP aims to provide reliable transmission, but is more heavyweight, while UDP is lightweight, but does not guarantee the delivery of packets. Thus, data-intensive applications that are error tolerant in terms of data transmission, such as video and data, tend to use UDP, as long as they are on reliable networks. On the Internet, applications that require the reliable transmission of data generally use TCP. TCP and UDP are the two main transport protocols that support higher-level application protocols like the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and HTTP. In turn, TCP and UDP sit on top of IP. The main feature of TCP is that it guarantees reliable delivery of packets, to the extent that dropped packets are retransmitted as required. However, reliable delivery in transport terms is different from reliable delivery assured by asynchronous messaging, as might be implemented by a message queue. It is up to the application to provide for the storaging and forwarding of packets if the network connection is broken. However, it s important to note that while TCP aims for guaranteed delivery, UDP makes no such promises indeed, the User Datagram Protocol may well be described as the Unreliable Delivery Protocol! The trade-off here is between guaranteed delivery and efficiency UDP is more lightweight than TCP, and can significantly reduce bandwidth requirements. In some applications where bandwidth is limited and connectivity is transient, such as noisy wireless signals, UDP is much more appropriate for use at the Transport level. As broadband, highly reliable Ethernet is rolled out, bandwidth-intensive applications such as audio/video, Voice over IP (VoIP), and video conferencing are all built on top of UDP, due to the reduced overhead. TCP is best suited to situations where a reliable network is always available, and where real-time interactions are necessary. For example, the telnet daemon uses TCP transport because interactive commands are issued in
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