Networking in Software

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Networking
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and their run-time parameters, such as the file system path to the daemon that is executed. The /etc/services file maintains a list of mappings between service names and port numbers, which is used to ensure that services are activated on the correct port.
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Independent of DNS is the local hosts file (/etc/hosts), which is used to list local hostnames and IP addresses. For a network with large numbers of hosts, using the /etc/hosts file is problematic, since its values must be updated on every host on the network each time a change is made. This is why using DNS or NIS/NIS+ is a better solution for managing distributed host data. However, the /etc/hosts file contains entries for some key services, such as logging, so it usually contains at least the following entries: The loopback address, 127.0.0.1, which is associated with the generic hostname localhost. This allows applications to be tested locally using the IP address 127.0.0.1 or the hostname localhost. The IP address, hostname, and FQDN of the localhost, since it requires this data before establishing a connection to a DNS server or NIS/NIS server when booting. An entry for a loghost, so that syslog data can be redirected to the appropriate host on the local network. A sample /etc/hosts file is shown here:
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127.0.0.1 192.68.16.1 192.68.16.2 192.68.16.3 localhost emu hawk eagle
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emu.cassowary.net hawk.cassowary.net eagle.cassowary.net
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loghost
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In this configuration, the localhost entry is defined, followed by the name and IP address of the localhost (hostname emu, with an IP address 192.68.16.1). In this case, emu redirects all of its syslog logging data to the host hawk (192.68.16.2), while another host eagle (192.68.16.3) is also defined.
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Configuring Network Interfaces
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The ifconfig command is responsible for configuring each network interface at boot time. ifconfig can also be used to check the status of active network interfaces by passing the a parameter:
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# ifconfig -a lo0: flags=849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 8232 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet 10.17.65.16 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 10.17.65.255 hme1: flags=863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet 204.17.65.16 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 204.17.65.255
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Basic Networking
In this case, the primary interface hme0 is running on the internal network, while the secondary interface hme1 is visible to the external network. The netmask for a class C network is used on both interfaces, while both have a distinct broadcast address. This ensures that information broadcast on the internal network is not visible to the external network. There are several parameters shown with ifconfig a, including whether or not the interface is UP or DOWN (that is, active or inactive). In the following example, the interface has not been enabled at boot time:
# ifconfig hme1 hme1: flags=863<DOWN,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet 204.17.64.16 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 204.17.64.255
The physical address can also be useful in detecting problems with a routing network interface to examine the ARP results for the LAN. This will determine whether or not the interface is visible to its clients:
# arp -a Net to Media Table Device IP Address Mask Flags ------ -------------------- --------------- ---hme0 server1.cassowary.net 255.255.255.255 hme0 server2.cassowary.net 255.255.255.255 hme0 server3.cassowary.net 255.255.255.255
Phys Addr ----------------00:c0:ff:19:48:d8 c2:d4:78:00:15:56 87:b3:9a:c2:e9:ea
Modifying Interface Parameters
There are two methods for modifying network interface parameters. You can use the ifconfig command to modify operational parameters, and to bring an interface online (UP) or shut it down (DOWN). Secondly, you can use /usr/sbin/ndd to set parameters for TCP/IP transmission, which will affect all network interfaces. In this section, we examine both of these methods, and how they may be used to manage interfaces and improve performance. It is sometimes necessary to shut down and start up a network interface to upgrade drivers or install patches affecting network service. To shut down a network interface, for example, you can use the following command:
# ifconfig hme1 down # ifconfig hme1 hme1: flags=863<DOWN,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet 204.17.64.16 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 204.17.64.255
Part V:
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