Basic Networking in Software

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Basic Networking
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Part V:
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Networking
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Parameters can also be set for IP. For example, if the parameter ip_forwarding has a value of 2 (the default), it will perform routing only when two or more interfaces are active. However, if this parameter is set to zero, ip_forwarding will never be performed (that is, to ensure that multihoming is enabled rather than routing). This can be set by using the command
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# ndd -set /dev/ip ip_forwarding 0
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This chapter examined the basic principles and procedures of Solaris networking. While we have covered a lot of ground, it s worthwhile learning how to relate services and applications from different TCP/IP layers to ensure end-to-end network connectivity.
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DHCP and NTP
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his chapter examines the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which is an easy way to dynamically manage IP addresses in class A, class B, and class C networks, using time-based leases for client addresses. Since at any one time only a few IP addresses on a network may be in use, organizing their allocation dynamically makes more sense than statically assigning them to individual hosts. This is particularly important for popular class C networks, in which less than 300 addresses are available. In this chapter, you will learn the background of DHCP and similar protocols (RARP and BOOTP). In addition, this chapter walks you through how to install a Solaris DHCP server and how to configure DHCP clients. It also investigates the Network Time Protocol (NTP), which provides a framework for standardizing and synchronizing accurate time and date settings on individual systems and on networks of systems. This chapter covers practical issues associated with installing DHCP servers and configuring DHCP clients on Windows, Linux, and Solaris systems. It is assumed that you are familiar with DNS and with TCP/IP stacks implemented on Solaris, Linux, or Windows systems. Starting with a description of the DHCP protocol and its historical roots in the BOOTP protocol, the chapter aims to provide a reference of the DHCP protocol and practical installation and configuration procedures for heterogeneous environments.
Key Concepts
The following key concepts are required knowledge for configuring DHCP and NTP.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
The Internet is a worldwide, networked environment through which information can be exchanged by using a number of well-defined network protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Each host on the Internet can be identified by a single machine-friendly number (e.g., 128.43.22.1), which is mapped to a human-friendly Fully Qualified Domain Name (e.g., www.paulwatters.com). This mapping is provided by a globally distributed database, known as the Domain Name
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Part V:
Networking
Service (DNS), which allows local networks to statically assign IP address ranges to all their local hosts. When DNS was first introduced, the exponential growth of networks and hosts connected to the Internet was not anticipated. This means that IP address allocations initially reserved for class A, B, and C networks were rather generous in hindsight many address ranges were not used to their full capacity. Nowadays, there is a critical shortage of available IP address space using the current IPv4 standard. Although the new IPv6 protocol (supported by Solaris 10) will provide many more potential addresses, organizations worldwide are seeking solutions to use their existing resources more efficiently. While IPv6 is currently being adopted by many organizations, widespread deployment is not anticipated in the near future. As an alternative to static IP address allocation, a practical alternative IP address management strategy is to use DHCP. This protocol allows a server to dynamically allocate IP addresses from a central DHCP server to all configured DHCP clients on the local network. DHCP provides a mechanism by which computers using TCP/IP can obtain protocol configuration parameters automatically, by using a lease mechanism, without having to rely on static addresses, which could be incorrect or outdated. This means that only hosts that are up will take an IP address from the pool of existing addresses assigned to a particular network, by requesting and accepting an IP address lease from the DHCP server. However, if a machine has been assigned an IP address, then it is possible that the lease on that machine has still not expired. Thus the machine is not up but still has an IP address. For a class C network, the pool of available addresses is (at most) 254, excluding the broadcast address, which is insufficient for many growing organizations. In addition, if an organization changes ISP, the organization ordinarily needs to change the network configuration parameters for each client system, a manual and inefficient process that consumes the valuable time of network administrators. DHCP is not the only protocol to lease out IP addresses in this way. Previously, Solaris clients used the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) to obtain an IP address dynamically from a RARP server. This protocol is particularly important for diskless clients who cannot store their IP address locally. However, DHCP is better than RARP because it supports clients from Solaris, Linux, and Microsoft Windows and can serve more parameters than just an IP address. In addition, RARP servers can provide addresses to only a single network, whereas DHCP is capable of serving multiple networks from a single server, provided that routing is correctly set up. On the other hand, Microsoft Windows administrators should be familiar with the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), which provided IP addresses dynamically in the same way that DHCP does. In fact, DHCP can be considered a superset of BOOTP, and DHCP servers are generally backward compatible with BOOTP. The relationship between DHCP and BOOTP is historical: the BOOTP protocol is the foundation on which DHCP was built. Many similarities remain: the packet formats for DHCP and BOOTP are the same, although BOOTP packets are fixed length and DHCP packets are variable length. The DHCP packet length is negotiated between the client and the server. Another advantage of DHCP over proprietary protocols is that it is an open network standard, developed through the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It is based on
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