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a client/server paradigm, in which the DHCP client (e.g., a PC running Microsoft Windows) contacts a DHCP server (e.g., a server running Solaris) for its network configuration parameters. The DHCP server is typically centrally located and is under the control of the network administrator. Since the server is secure, DHCP clients can obtain reliable information for dynamic configuration, with parameters that reflect up-to-date changes in the current network architecture. For example, if a client is moved to a new network, it must be assigned a new IP address for that new network. DHCP can be used to manage these assignments automatically. If you are interested in finding out more about how DHCP works, refer to RFC 2131. There is also a reference implementation of a DHCP server, client, and relay agent available from Internet Systems Consortium (ISC), a nonprofit corporation (http://www.isc.org/). The ISC implementation uses a modular API, which is designed to work with both POSIX-compliant and nonPOSIX-compliant operating systems. It also includes source code, making it useful for understanding how DHCP works behind the scenes. In addition to dynamically allocating IP addresses, DHCP serves other key network configuration parameters, such as the subnet mask, default router, and Domain Name System (DNS) server. Again, this goes beyond the capabilities of competing protocols like RARP. By deploying a DHCP server, network administrators can reduce repetitive client-based configuration of individual computers, often requiring the use of confusing OS-specific setup applications. Instead, clients can obtain all of their required network configuration parameters automatically, without manual intervention, from a centrally managed DHCP server. Both commercial and freeware versions of DHCP clients and servers are available for all platforms. For example, Check Point s (http://www.checkpoint.com/) DHCP server can be integrated with its firewall product, Firewall-1, to maximize the security potential of centralized network configuration management. Advanced network management protocols are supported by DHCP, like the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). In addition, configuration change-management issues, like IP mobility and managing addresses for multiple subnets, can all be handled from a single DHCP server. Implementation of DHCP should always be evaluated in the context of other network management protocols, like SNMP, and other directory services, like the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Both LDAP and SNMP are crucial to the management of hosts and users in large and distributed networks. Since DHCP is responsible for the allocation of network configuration parameters, it is essential that SNMP agents obtain the correct information about hosts that they manage. In addition, LDAP server administrators need to be aware that host IP addresses will change over time.
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Time may be relative to the observer, but keeping accurate and consistent time provides a critical frame of reference for applications running on a local server and across the network. For example, imagine a database application that records bank balances in a temporary database for an Internet banking system. The most recent bank balance for each account, when updated, would be always inserted into the Balance column of the
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Accounts table, with two primary keys to identify the balances: account_name and timestamp. Whenever the latest balance is to be entered, a new row is inserted into the Accounts table with the account_name, balance, and timestamp. All other transactions, such as withdrawals, require that the most recent balance be determined from the timestamp (no updates of rows are permitted, for security reasons). If dates and times are not maintained consistently on the system, the potential exists for the true bank balance at the present time to be missed for selection based on the incorrect timestamp it may have been assigned. This disparity would clearly render the application useless. Figure 22-1 demonstrates this scenario in action two balances have been inserted into the Accounts table for account_name 95639656: $18,475.90 is the balance on January 1, 2002, at 18:54:21, and $17,475.90 is the balance on the same day at 18:54:22. This set of entries indicates that a withdrawal of $1,000 occurred one second after the first transaction. What if the system clock did not have accuracy to within one second The incorrect balance of $18,475.90 might then be reported when future queries are run. While most systems are capable of maintaining millisecond accuracy for time, a more complex situation arises when high availability and clustering become involved and different systems in the cluster have different times and dates. For example, imagine that a single database server receives updates from six Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) application servers on six different machines. These servers process requests from clients in a round-robin fashion, and all update the same table on the database server. This allows each application server to always retrieve the most up-to-date information for each client. However, if each server has a different date and time, they would be writing balances into the Accounts table with varying timestamps. Again, the fact that the timestamps varied would prevent the application from being used seriously. Figure 22-2 again demonstrates this scenario two balances have been inserted into the Accounts table for account_name 95639656: server1 inserted the balance $18,475.90 on January 1, 2002 at 18:54:21, and server2 inserted the balance $17,475.90 on January 1, 2002 at 18:54:22. This set of entries indicates that a withdrawal of $1,000 occurred one second after the first transaction. If the two clocks of server1 and server2
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