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Code DHCPDISCOVER DHCPOFFER DHCPREQUEST DHCPACK DHCPNACK DHCPRELEASE
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Description Broadcast from client to all reachable servers Server responds to DHCPDISCOVER requests Client accepts lease proposal from only one server Server acknowledges lease Server refuses to accept DHCPREQUEST Lease no longer required
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DHCP has three ways to allocate leases to client. Automatic allocation grants an IP address permanently to a client. This is useful for granting IP addresses to servers that require a static IP address. A DNS server typically requires a static IP address, which can be registered in host records lodged with InterNIC. The majority of clients will have addresses assigned dynamically by the server, which allows the greatest reuse of addresses. Alternatively, an administrator may manually assign an address to a specific client. The process of allocating a DHCP lease is shown in Figure 22-3.
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The Solaris NTP daemon is xntpd. It operates by listening for requests from NTP clients and sends responses appropriately. The server processes a request, modifies the appropriate fields with the correct time, etc., and then returns the modified request data as a response. The response allows the client to modify its clock settings appropriately. In addition, the server is able to provide data from a number of different authoritative sources.
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Part V:
Networking
The accuracy of a client s time can be improved by selecting the most accurate server. Fortunately, there are measurements available to determine which clocks provide the most accurate data. Reliability and accuracy data is returned in the response data when a client makes a request to the server. In a more complex network, where a time server must be highly available, it may be more appropriate to create a hierarchical system of NTP servers, where dynamic reconfiguration is possible. This is only necessary where hardware or software failures can affect a single production system s reliability. In this case, multiple servers can act as peers to each other. A primary time server in this setup obtains its time from a reference, such as an external clock device, and transmits it to other, secondary servers. Alternatively, there may be multiple primary time servers, and secondary servers must determine which server is most accurate. Clients then access secondary sources directly. Of course, this creates a stratum of accuracy, with primary servers being the most accurate, secondary servers being the next most accurate, and clients being the least accurate. Millisecond accuracy should be possible with secondary servers. However, errors can be estimated even at the client level and corrections made to improve the overall accuracy of the time estimation. The timestamp lies at the core of the NTP data model it is the number of seconds that have elapsed since 01/01/1900 00:00 and is represented by a 64-bit unsigned floatingpoint number. The first 32 bits represent the integer portion of the number, while the last 32 bits represent the fractional portion of the number. The number of seconds in one non-leap year is 31,536,000. Given that only 64 bits are available to store time data in the NTP timestamp format, the maximum value will be reached in the year 2036. Given the number of legacy applications even now that use timestamping, a significant amount of planning will be required over the next 30 years or so to develop a new, high-capacity timestamp format that is backward compatible with existing formats. A sample NTP server configuration file is located in /etc/inet/ntp.server. This file provides a pro forma template for configuring an NTP server that utilizes an external clock device, provides for local clock synchronization, and provides for broadcasting times across the network. A sample file is shown here:
server 127.127.XType.0 prefer fudge 127.127.XType.0 stratum 0 broadcast 224.0.1.1 ttl 4 enable auth monitor driftfile /var/ntp/ntp.drift statsdir /var/ntp/ntpstats/ filegen peerstats file peerstats type day enable filegen loopstats file loopstats type day enable filegen clockstats file clockstats type day enable keys /etc/inet/ntp.keys trustedkey 0 requestkey 0 controlkey 0
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