barcode generator in vb.net free download Overview of Packet Delivery in Software

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Overview of Packet Delivery
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Before we examine the differences between static and dynamic routing in detail, let s take a step back and consider how information is passed between two systems, whether the exchange is host to host, host to router, or router to router. All information is exchanged in the form of discrete packets. A packet is the smallest unit of information transmitted between hosts using TCP/IP and contains both a header and a message component, as shown in Figure 23-3. In order to deliver packets from one host to another host successfully, each packet contains information in the header, which is similar to an envelope. Among many other fields, the header contains the address of the destination machine and the address of the source machine. The message section of the packet contains the actual data to be transferred. Packets are often transferred on the transport layer using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which guarantees the delivery of packets, although some applications use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), where the continuity of a connection cannot be
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FIGURE 23-3
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A packet has both a message and a header.
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guaranteed. In normal TCP transmission mode, only 64KB of data can be transferred in a single session, unless large window support is enabled, in which case up to 1GB of data may be transmitted. The header may also have information inserted by the source machine, which is referred to as data encapsulation. The action of passing a packet is referred to as a hop, so routing involves enabling packets to hop from a source host to any arbitrary host on the Internet. In order for packets to be delivered correctly between two hosts, all intermediate routers must be able to determine where the packets have come from and where they must be delivered to. This can be achieved by referring to a host by using its IP address (e.g., 204.16.42.58) or its Fully Qualified Domain Name (e.g., server.company.com). Although it is also possible to refer to a machine by its Ethernet (hardware) address, a logical rather than a physical representation of a machine s network interface card is always used. Sending a packet across a network makes full use of all network layers. For example, if a telnet session is to be established between two machines, the application protocol specifies how the message and header are to be constructed, information which is then passed to the transport layer protocol. For a telnet session, the transport layer protocol is TCP, which proceeds with encapsulation of the packet s data, which is split into segments. The data is divided depending on the size of the TCP window allowed by the system. Each segment has a header and a checksum. The checksum is used by the destination host to determine whether a received packet is likely to be free of corruption. When a segment is due to be transmitted from the source host, a three-way handshake occurs between the source and destination: a SYN segment is sent to the destination host to request a connection, and an acknowledgement (ACK) is returned to the source when the destination host is ready to receive. When the ACK is received by the source host, its receipt is acknowledged back to the destination, and transmission proceeds with data being passed to the IP layer, where segments are realized as IP datagrams. IP also adds a header to the segment, and passes it to the physical networking layer for transport. A common method of enacting a denial-of-service (DoS) attack on a remote host involves sending many SYN requests to a remote host, without completing the threeway handshake. Solaris now limits the maximum number of connections with incomplete handshakes to reduce the impact of the problem. When a packet finally arrives at the destination host, it travels through the TCP/IP protocol stack in the reverse order from which it took on the sender: just like a deck of cards that has been dealt onto a playing table and retrieved from the top of the pack. The story becomes more complicated when packets need to be passed through several hosts to reach their ultimate destination. Although the method of passing data from source to destination is the same, the next hop along the route needs to be determined somehow. The path that a packet takes across the network depends on the IP address of the destination host, as specified in the packet header. If the destination host is on the local network, the packet can be delivered immediately without intervention of a separate router. For example, a source host 204.12.60.24 on the class C network 204.12.60.0 can directly pass a packet to a destination 204.12.60.32. However, once a packet needs to be delivered beyond the local network, the process becomes more complicated. The packet is passed to the router on the local network (which may be defined in /etc/defaultrouter), and a router table is consulted. The router
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