Networking in Software

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Networking
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echo escape rlogin tracefile flushoutput interrupt quit eof erase kill lnext susp reprint worderase start stop forw1 forw2 ayt
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[^E] [^]] [off] "(standard output)" [^O] [^C] [^\] [^D] [^ ] [^U] [^V] [^Z] [^R] [^W] [^Q] [^S] [off] [off] [^T]
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Alternatively, the status command reveals the characteristics of the current telnet connection:
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telnet> status Connected to currawong.cassowary.net. Operating in single character mode Catching signals locally Remote character echo Escape character is '^]'.
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To resume the telnet session, simply press the ENTER key at the telnet> prompt.
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inetd controls the standard remote access clients, including the so-called r-commands, including the remote login (rlogin) and remote shell (rsh) applications. The rlogin application is similar to telnet in that it establishes a remote connection through TCP/ IP to a server, spawning an interactive login shell. For example, the command
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$ rlogin server
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by default produces the response
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password:
24:
Remote Access
after which the user enters a password, which the server then authenticates and either denies or grants access. If the target user account has a different name than your current user account, you can try this:
$ rlogin server l user
However, there are two main differences between telnet and rlogin that are significant. The first is that rlogin attempts to use the username on your current system as the account name to connect to the remote service, whereas telnet always prompts for a separate username. This makes remotely logging into machines on a single logical network with rlogin much faster than with telnet. Second, on a trusted, secure network, it is possible to set up a remote authentication mechanism by which the remote host allows a direct, no-username/no-password login from authorized clients. This automated authentication can be performed on a system-wide level by defining an equivalent host for authentication purposes on the server in /etc/hosts .equiv, or on a user-by-user basis with the file .rhosts. If the file /etc/hosts.equiv contains the client machine name and your username, you will be permitted to automatically execute a remote login. For example, if the /etc/hosts.equiv file on the server contains the line
client
any user from the machine client may log into a corresponding account on the server without entering a username and password. Similarly, if your username and client machine name appear in the .rhosts file in the home directory of the user with the same name on the server, you will also be permitted to remotely log in without an identification/ authentication challenge. This means that a user on the remote system may log in with all the privileges of the user on the local system, without being asked to enter a username or password clearly a dangerous security risk. Remote-shell (rsh) connects to a specified hostname and executes a command. rsh is equivalent to rlogin when no command arguments are specified. rsh copies its standard input to the remote command, the standard output of the remote command to its standard output, and the standard error of the remote command to its standard error. Interrupt, quit, and terminate signals are propagated to the remote command. In contrast to commands issued interactively through rlogin, rsh normally terminates when the remote command does. As an example, the following executes the command df k on the server, returning information about disk slices and creating the local file server.df.txt that contains the output of the command:
$ rsh server df -k > server.df.txt
Clearly, rsh has the potential to be useful in scripts and automated command processing.
Part V:
Networking
Testing Service Connectivity
Because a port number can be specified on the command line, telnet clients can be used to connect to arbitrary ports on Solaris servers. This makes a telnet client a useful tool for testing whether services that should have been disconnected are actually active. For example, you can interactively issue commands to an FTP server on port 21:
$ telnet server 21 Trying 172.16.1.1... Connected to server. Escape character is '^]'. 220 server FTP server (UNIX(r) System V Release 4.0) ready.
and on a sendmail server on port 25:
$ telnet server 25 Trying 172.16.1.1... Connected to server. Escape character is '^]'. 220 server ESMTP Sendmail 8.9.1a/8.9.1; Mon, 22 Nov 1999 14:31:36 +1100 (EST)
Interactive testing of this kind has many uses. For example, if you telnet to port 80 on a server, you are usually connected to a Web server, where you can issue interactive commands using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). For example, to GET the default index page on a server, you could type get index.html:
Trying 172.16.1.1... Connected to server. Escape character is '^]'. GET index.html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"> <HTML><HEAD> <TITLE>Server</TITLE></HEAD> <h1>Welcome to server!</h1>
This technique is useful when testing proxy server configurations for new kinds of HTTP clients (for example, a HotJava browser) or the technique can be executed during a script to check whether the Web server is active and serving expected content.
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