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There are some optional services started by the NFS server startup script, including daemons that support diskless booting (the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol daemon, / usr/sbin/in.rarpd, and the boot parameter server, /usr/sbin/rpc.bootparamd). In addition, a separate daemon for x86 boot support (/usr/sbin/rpld), using the Network Booting RPL (Remote Program Load) protocol, may also be started. You need to configure these services only if you wish to provide diskless booting for local clients; otherwise, they can be safely commented from the /etc/init.d/nfs.server script.
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Sharing File Systems
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To actually share file systems and directories, you can use the share command. For example, if you want to share the /var/mail directory from carolina to georgia, you could use the command
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# share -F nfs -o rw=georgia /var/mail
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In this example, -F nfs stands for a file system of type NFS.
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Of course, you really want to share the volume to virginia and fairfax as well, so you would probably use the command
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# share -F nfs -o rw=georgia,virginia,fairfax /var/mail
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The /var/mail volume is shared to these clients because users on these systems need to read and write their e-mail. However, if you need to share a CD-ROM volume, you obviously need to share it read-only:
# share -F nfs -o ro /cdrom
Normally, the volumes to be shared are identified in the /etc/dfs/dfstab file. Note that if this file contains no entries, then the NFS server will not start, with the message:
NFS service was not started because /etc/dfs/dfstab has no entries.
One of the really innovative features of NFS is that a system that shares volumes to other systems can actually remotely mount shared volumes from its own clients. For example, carolina might share the volume /cdrom to georgia, fairfax, and virginia. In contrast, virginia might share the /staff directory, which contains home directories, to carolina, georgia, and fairfax, using the command
# share -F nfs -o rw=georgia,carolina,fairfax /staff
File systems can be unshared using the unshare command. For example, if you are going to change a CD-ROM on carolina that is shared to clients using NFS, it might be wise to unmount it first:
# unshare -F nfs /cdrom
To unshare all volumes that are currently being shared from an NFS server, you can use the following command:
# unshareall
The command dfmounts shows the local resources shared through the networked file system that are currently mounted by specific clients:
# dfmounts RESOURCE SERVER PATHNAME carolina /cdrom carolina /var/mail carolina /opt/answerbook
CLIENTS virginia,georgia fairfax,virginia,georgia fairfax
Part VI:
Services, Directories, and Applications
However, dfmounts does not provide information about the permissions with which directories and file systems are shared, nor does it show those shared resources that have no clients currently using them. To display this information, you need to use the share command with no arguments. On virginia, this looks like
# share /staff rw=georgia,fairfax,carolina
"staff"
while on carolina, the volumes are different:
# share -
/cdrom ro=georgia,fairfax,carolina "cdrom" /var/mail rw=georgia,fairfax,carolina "mail"
Conversely, as a client, you want to determine which volumes are available for you to mount from NFS servers. This can be achieved by using the dfshares command. For example, to view the mounts available from the server virginia, executed on carolina, the following output would be displayed:
# dfshares F nfs virginia RESOURCE SERVER virginia:/staff virginia
ACCESS -
TRANSPORT -
Installing an NFS Client
In order to access file systems that are being shared from an NFS server, a separate NFS client must be operating on the client system. There are two main daemon processes that must be running in order to use the mount command to access shared volumes: the NFS lock daemon (/usr/lib/nfs/lockd), and the NFS stat daemon (/usr/lib/nfs/statd). The lockd daemon manages file sharing and locking at the user level, while the statd daemon is used for file recovery after connection outage. If NFS was installed during the initial system setup, then a file called nfs.client should have been created in /etc/init.d. Normally, NFS clients are started at run-level 2. However, to manually run the NFS client, you need to execute the following command:
# /etc/init.d/nfs.client start
Just like the NFS server, you can verify that the NFS daemons have started correctly by using the following commands:
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