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NIS+ domains for Panther College
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The NIS+ domains for Panther College can exactly mirror the DNS configuration, as shown in Figure 29-2. However, some differences in naming are immediately apparent: whereas DNS names are all lowercase and do not end in a period, NIS+ names use initial capitalization for each part of the name and end in a period. In addition, the second-level domain identified in DNS as panther.edu would be the root domain in an NIS+ network, and the third-level domains undergrad.panther.edu and graduate.panther.edu would be described as nonroot domains. Each of these domains would be associated with a server, in which case the existing DNS servers would double up as NIS+ servers. In fact, in normal NIS+ usage, each of the three domains at Panther College would require two servers: a master server and at least one replica, or slave, server. This ensures that if the master server is disrupted or experiences hardware failure, the replica server holds copies of network service information and service continues. The expanded NIS+ domains for Panther College, with a master and slave server each (called Master and Replica), are shown in Figure 29-3.
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FIGURE 29-3
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NIS+ domains with a master and a slave server each
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Services, Directories, and Applications
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In addition to domains and servers, NIS+ also caters to clients. Each client is associated with a specific server and domain. For example, a client in the chemistry lab in the graduate school (Curie.Graduate.Panther.Edu.) would be served by Master.Graduate.Panther.Edu., and would be part of the Graduate.Panther.Edu. domain. Alternatively, a history professor in the undergraduate school with a computer named FDR.Undergrad.Panther.Edu. would be served by Master.Undergrad.Panther.Edu., and would be part of the Undergrad.Panther.Edu. domain. Figure 29-4 shows the hierarchy of control for the FDR.Undergrad.Panther.Edu. client. When each client is installed, a directory cache is created, which enables the client to locate other hosts and services via the appropriate server. So far, only one of the many kinds of namespace components has been mentioned: the domain. However, there are many other components that exist in the namespace, including group objects, directory objects, and table objects. The following sections examine these important features of the namespace, as well as the specific configuration of NIS maps and NIS+ tables. It is worth mentioning at this point that one of the main reasons that organizations choose to implement NIS+ is the improved security that accompanies the system. For example, NIS+ tables are not directly editable, unlike their normal Solaris counterparts in the /etc directory. Requests to change or even access information in the namespace can only take place once a user has been authenticated. In addition to authentication, each user must be authorized to access a particular resource. This doubly protects sensitive and organizational data in a networked environment. The main authentication exchange takes place when either a user presents their credentials or a host presents its credentials, in the form of an unencrypted LOCAL form or a more secure DES-encrypted
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FIGURE 29-4
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Hierarchy of control for a specific domain client (FDR.Undergrad.Panther.Edu.)
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Network Information Service (NIS/NIS+)
exchange. The former is used for testing, while the latter is always used for deployment. After authentication, authorization for the requested resource is checked. Access rights can always be examined by using the niscat command, which is discussed later in this chapter.
NIS Maps
As previously mentioned, NIS uses a series of maps to encode data about the network structure. Many of these maps are in a form that can be accessed through an address key (having a byaddr suffix) or through a name (with a byname suffix). Whenever a client needs to find information about a particular host, service, group, network, or netgroup, it can retrieve it by consulting the appropriate map as defined in the namespace. The main system maps are listed in this table:
bootparams ethers.byaddr ethers.byname group.bygid group.byname hosts.byaddr hosts.byname mail.aliases mail.byaddr netgroup netgroup.byhost netgroup.byuser netid.byname netmasks.byaddr networks.byaddr networks.byname passwd.byname passwd.byuid protocols.byname protocols.bynumber publickey.byname rpc.bynumber services.byname ypservers
Contains a list of diskless clients for a domain Contains a list of the Ethernet addresses of all hosts in the domain, and their hostnames Contains a list of the hostnames of all hosts in the domain, and their Ethernet addresses Contains a list of groups, indexed by group ID (GID) Contains a list of groups, indexed by group name Contains a list of the addresses of all hosts in the domain, and their hostnames Contains a list of the hostnames of all hosts in the domain, and their addresses Contains a list of mail aliases within the namespace, indexed by name Contains a list of mail aliases within the namespace, indexed by address Contains netgroup information, indexed by group name Contains netgroup information, indexed by hostname Contains netgroup information, indexed by username Contains the netname of hosts and users Defines the netmasks defined in the domain namespace Defines the networks in the domain namespace, sorted by address Defines the networks in the domain namespace, sorted by name Defines the password database, sorted by username Defines the password database, sorted by user ID Defines the network protocols used in the domain, sorted by name Defines the network protocols used in the domain, sorted by number Contains public keys for RPC Contains RPC details, indexed by number Defines all available Internet services, sorted by name Contains a list of all NIS servers available
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