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moorea# nischmod n-cm passwd.org_dir
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Network Information Service (NIS/NIS+)
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Even unauthenticated users require read (r) access to the Passwd table for authentication, which can be granted with the following command:
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moorea# nischmod n+r passwd.org_dir
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To grant modify (m) and create (c) access rights to the current user (in this case, root) and their primary group on the same table, you would use the command
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moorea# nischmod og+cm passwd.org_dir
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Although NIS+ permission strings are easy to remember, they are hard to combine into single commands in which some permissions are granted while others are removed, unlike the octal codes used to specify absolute permissions on Solaris file systems. However, it is possible to combine permission strings by using a comma to separate individual strings. The following complex-string example shows how to set permissions within a single string but equally shows how challenging it is to interpret:
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moorea# nischmod o=rmcd,g=rmc,w=rm,n=r hosts.org_dir
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This command grants the following permissions to four different categories of users:
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owner group world nobody Read, modify, create, and delete Read, modify, and create Read and modify Read only
nisls
The nisls command is used as a lookup and query command that can provide views on NIS+ directories and tables. For example, to view all the NIS+ directories that have been populated within the local namespace, you can use the nisls command:
moorea# nisls develop.panther.edu.: org_dir groups_dir
There are two directory object types listed here: org_dir, which lists all the tables that have been set up within the namespace, and groups_dir, which stores details of all NIS+ groups. You can view a list of tables by using the nisls command once again on the org_dir directory:
moorea# nisls org_dir org_dir.sales.panther.edu.:
Part VI:
Services, Directories, and Applications
auto_home auto_master bootparams client_info cred ethers group hosts mail_aliases netgroup netmasks networks passwd protocols rpc sendmailvars services timezone
A large number of tables have been populated for this domain. The groups directory contains the admin group created earlier, which lists all the administrators, as well as several other groups that are based on distinct organizational units within the current domain:
moorea# nisls groups_dir groups_dir.sales.panther.edu.: admin adverts legal media
niscat
The niscat command is used to retrieve the contents of objects within the domain primarily the data contained within NIS+ tables. For example, all hosts listed within the domain can be listed by using the following command:
moorea$ niscat -h hosts.org_dir moorea.panther.edu moorea 10.58.64.16 borabora.panther.edu borabora 10.58.64.17 tahiti.panther.edu tahiti 10.58.64.18 orana.panther.edu orana 10.58.64.19
Alternatively, you can use the niscat command to examine the contents of the Passwd table:
moorea$ niscat passwd.org_dir moppet:*LK*:1001:1:moppet:/staff/moppet:/bin/tcsh:10910:-1:-1:-1:-1::0
29:
Network Information Service (NIS/NIS+)
miki:*LK*:1002:1:miki:/staff/miki:/bin/bash:10920:-1:-1:-1:-1::0 maya:*LK*:1003:1:maya:/staff/maya:/bin/sh:10930:-1:-1:-1:-1::0 paul:*LK*:1004:1:paul:/staff/paul:/bin/csh:10940:-1:-1:-1:-1::0
Next, you can examine which groups these users belong to by using the niscat command once again:
moorea$ niscat group.org_dir root::0:root staff::1:moppet,miki,maya,paul bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys:*:3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::4:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root
All of the hosts that form part of the local domain can be examined based on their Ethernet address, which is extracted from the Ethers table, as shown in the following example:
moorea$ niscat ethers.org_dir 1:4a:16:2f:13:b2 moorea.panther.edu. 1:02:1e:f4:61:2e borabora.panther.edu. f4:61:2e:1:4a:16 tahiti.panther.edu. 2f:13:b2:1:02:1e orana.panther.edu.
To get an idea of the services that are offered to these hosts, you can examine the Services table:
moorea$ niscat services.org_dir tcpmux tcpmux tcp 1 echo echo tcp 7 echo echo udp 7 discard discard tcp 9 discard sink tcp 9 discard null tcp 9 discard discard udp 9 discard sink udp 9 discard null udp 9 systat systat tcp 11 systat users tcp 11 daytime daytime tcp 13 daytime daytime udp 13
Every other table that is defined within the domain may be viewed by using the niscat command in this way.
Part VI:
Services, Directories, and Applications
Summary
In this chapter, you have examined how to configure the NIS and NIS+ naming services. While these are presently widely deployed in the enterprise, they will likely be replaced by LDAP or some other standard naming service in the future.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
DAP is a white pages type of service, similar to the older X.500 standard for managing organization-wide directory information, for which it originally acted as a front end. X.500 was based on the heavyweight Directory Access Protocol (DAP), whereas LDAP, as a lightweight protocol, sits directly on top of TCP/IP. Operations on LDAP servers such as iPlanet Directory Server (iDS) are of two kinds: data management operations, which insert, update, or delete records, and queries, which retrieve authentication and identification tokens from the organization s database. In theory, the LDAP protocol allows for a lot of different types of data about individuals and groups to be stored, including sounds, images, and text. In Solaris 8, only an LDAP client was supplied with the operating environment release, making it less attractive to use than NIS/NIS+, since a separate LDAP server had to be purchased and installed. However, Solaris 10 has integrated iDS into the core architecture, meaning that LDAP servers and clients can be installed and configured directly after and during installation, respectively. iDS is a key component of the iPlanet software suite, which provides centralized authentication and authorization services for other iPlanet applications, and for third-party applications. For example, access to the Internet mediated through the iPlanet Proxy Server can be gained only by being an attribute of a group defined within the local iDS database, demonstrating the key role that iDS plays in supporting enterprise applications. Similarly, access to scheduling and event notification facilities through the iPlanet Calendar Server can be provided only to users who are authenticated through the iDS database. Many Solaris applications can use LDAP for authentication and authorization. iDS does not use a proprietary protocol to store user and group data or to communicate with clients: instead, iDS uses the LDAP standard to authenticate users. This is an open standard, meaning that a Solaris-based LDAP server can authenticate some Microsoft Windows clients. In addition, it means that iDS can act as a drop-in replacement for any other LDAP-compliant server, enabling you to standardize directory services across a single platform. Alternatively, multiple server types from different vendors can be
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