barcode dll for vb.net The History of UNIX in Software

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UNIX was originally developed at Bell Laboratories as a private research project by a small group of people, starting in the late 1960s. This group had experience with research efforts on a number of different operating systems in the previous decade, and its goals with the UNIX project were to design an operating system to satisfy the objectives of transparency, simplicity, and modifiability, with the use of a new third-generation programming language. At the time of conception, typical vendor-specific operating systems were extremely large, and all written in assembly language, making them difficult to maintain. Although the first attempts to write the
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UNIX kernel were based on assembly language, later versions were written in a high-level language called C, which was developed during the same era. Even today, most modern operating system kernels, such as the Linux kernel, are written in C. After the kernel was developed using the first C compiler, a complete operating environment was developed, including the many utilities associated with UNIX today (e.g., the visual editor, vi). In this section, we examine the timeline leading to the development of UNIX, and the origins of the two main flavors of UNIX: AT&T (System V) and BSD.
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Origins of UNIX
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In 1969, Ken Thompson from AT&T s Bell Telephone Labs wrote the first version of the UNIX operating system, on a DEC PDP-7. Disillusioned with the inefficiency of the Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) project, Thompson decided to create a programmer-friendly operating system that limited the functions contained within the kernel and allowed greater flexibility in the design and implementation of applications. The PDP-7 was a modest system on which to build a new operating system it had only an assembler and a loader, and it would allow only a single user login at any one time. It didn t even have a hard disk the developers were forced to partition physical memory into an operating system segment and a RAM disk segment. Thus, the first UNIX file system was emulated entirely in RAM! After successfully crafting a single-user version of UNIX on the PDP-7, Thompson and his colleague Dennis Ritchie ported the system to a much larger DEC PDP-11/20 system in 1970. This project was funded with the requirement of building a text-processing system for patents, the descendents of which still exist in text filters such as troff. The need to create application programs ultimately led to the development of the first C compiler by Ritchie, which was based on the B language. C was written with portability in mind thus, platform-specific libraries could be addressed using the same function call from source code that would also compile on another hardware platform. Although the PDP-11 was better than the PDP-7, it was still very modest compared to today s scientific calculators it had 24KB of addressable memory, with 12KB reserved for the operating system. By 1972, the number of worldwide UNIX installations had grown to ten. The next major milestone in the development of UNIX was the rewriting of the kernel in C, by Ritchie and Thompson, in 1973. This explains why C and UNIX are strongly related even today, most UNIX applications are written in C, even though other programming languages have long been made available. Following the development of the C kernel, the owners of UNIX (being AT&T) began licensing the source code to educational institutions within the United States and abroad. However, these licenses were often restrictive, and the releases were not widely advertised. No support was offered, and no mechanism was available for officially fixing bugs. However, because users had access to the source code, the ingenuity in
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