barcode dll for vb.net Solaris Run Levels and Their Functions in Software

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Solaris Run Levels and Their Functions
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User Status Console access Multiuser Multiuser Not specified Console access Single user Console access
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Run Control Script Directory
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/etc/rc0.d /etc/rc1.d /etc/rc2.d /etc/rc3.d
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Administrative state; only root file system is available Single user
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/etc/rc5.d /etc/rc6.d /etc/rcS.d
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TABLE 4-1
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Initialization, OpenBoot PROM, and Run Levels
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Run Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 S TABLE 4-2
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Run Control Script
/etc/rc0 /etc/rc1 /etc/rc2 /etc/rc3
/etc/rc5 /etc/rc6 /etc/rcS
Solaris Run-Level Scripts
Each run level is associated with a run-level script, as shown in Table 4-2. The run-level script is responsible for the orderly execution of all run-level scripts within a specific runlevel directory. The script name matches the run level and directory name. When a Solaris system starts, the init process is spawned, which is responsible for managing processes and the transitions between run levels. You can actually switch manually between run levels by using the init command; to halt the operating system and reboot (run-level 6), you can simply type the following command:
# init 6
Note that a reboot command exists as an alias to init 6.
Firmware
In many respects, Solaris startup and shutdown is similar to many other systems. However, recognizing and appreciating the distinguishing features of the Solaris operating system from other operating systems is important. One of the outstanding facilities for SPARC hardware is the firmware monitoring system (OpenBoot PROM), which is responsible for key prebooting tasks: Starting the Solaris operating system by typing ok boot at the OpenBoot prompt, which boots the Solaris kernel Setting system configuration parameters, such as the boot device, which could be one of the hard disks (specified by a full device pathname), another host on the network, or a CD-ROM Watching network traffic by issuing the command ok watch-net at the OpenBoot prompt Performing simple diagnostic tests on system devices (e.g., testing the termination status of a SCSI bus, or the Power-On Self-Test [POST] tests)
Part I:
Installation
Rather than just being a simple operating system loader, OpenBoot also permits programs written in the stack-based Forth programming language to be written, loaded, and run before booting commences. You can also set variables post-boot during singleand multiuser init states by using the eeprom command as superuser. For example, you can use eeprom to change the amount of RAM self-tested at boot to 64MB:
# eeprom selftest-#megs=64
On Solaris x86 systems, the firmware does not directly support this kind of eeprom functionality; every PC manufacturer has a different BIOS system, making it difficult. Instead, storage is simulated by variables set in the /boot/solaris/bootenv.rc file. A second distinguishing feature of the Solaris operating system is the aim of maximized uptime, through efficient kernel design and the user application model. In some nonSolaris server environments, the system must be rebooted every time a new application is installed, or a kernel rebuild might be required to change a configuration. Fortunately, rebooting is rarely required for Solaris systems, because applications are logically isolated from system configuration options, and you can set many system-level configuration options in a superuser shell. For example, you can set many TCP/IP stack options dynamically using the following command:
# ndd /dev/tcp
With most hardware configurations, you don t even need to reboot to install new hardware for example, if a drive fails that is part of a RAID array, it can usually be hot-swapped without interrupting the operation of any applications or rebooting. If the original drive is mirrored, then the replacement drive will be resynchronized. These are the kinds of benefits that will be a welcome relief to new Solaris administrators.
Control Scripts and Directories
Every Solaris init state (such as init state 6) has its own run-level script directory (e.g., /etc/rc6.d). This contains a set of symbolic links (like shortcuts in Microsoft Windows) that are associated with the service startup files in the /etc/init.d directory. Each linked script starts with the letter S ( start ) or the letter K ( kill ), and is used to either start or kill processes. When a system is booted, processes are started. When a system is shut down, processes are killed. The start and kill links are typically made to the same script file, which interprets two parameters: start and stop. The scripts are executed in numerical order, so a script like /etc/rc3.d/S20dhcp is executed before /etc/rc3.d/S21sshd.
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