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n this chapter, we focus on basic and advanced text processing in Solaris. An editor is used primarily to create new text files or edit existing text files. Few UNIX users would have escaped learning about the visual editor (vi) when first learning how to use a Solaris shell. In this chapter, the aim is to review some of the more esoteric vi usages, and to review commonly used command-mode and ex-mode commands. We also present examples of how to use text-processing utilities like PERL, sed, and awk.
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Key Concepts
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The following concepts are required knowledge for working with text processing.
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Visual Editor
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vi is a text-processing tool that carries out the following tasks on Solaris and other UNIX systems: Creates new text files Modifies existing files Searches for a text string in a file Replaces one string with another in a file Moves or copies a string within a file Removes a string from a file To run vi from the command line and create a new file, you use the following command:
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To run vi from the command line and edit an existing file, use the following command:
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Part II:
System Essentials
where file.txt is the filename of the file to be edited. The result of editing a file (such as / etc/passwd.txt) is shown in Figure 6-1. When editing an existing file, vi copies the bytes from disk into a memory buffer, which is then operated on according to user commands. Text can be inserted during edit mode, while commands are executed during command mode. Changes are not written to disk until the appropriate save command is executed. During edit mode, special keys such as the arrow keys do not operate as commands to move the cursor around the screen; instead, the actual code is inserted into the file. These keys can be used only when the editor is in command mode. During edit mode, you can switch to command mode by pressing the ESCAPE key. When in command mode, you can switch to edit mode by pressing the I key. The following commands can be executed in command mode: / Performs a forward search for a text string.
Performs a backward search for a text string. : Runs an ex editor command on the current line. ! Executes a shell within vi. Saves a file and exits. ZZ
h Moves the cursor left. j Moves the cursor down. k Moves the cursor up.
FIGURE 6-1
Editing the /etc/passwd file
6:
Te x t P r o c e s s i n g a n d E d i t i n g
l Moves the cursor right. nG Moves the cursor to line n. w Moves to next the word. b Moves back one word. dw ndw d^ dd dG x nx nY Deletes words. Deletes n words. Deletes all words to the beginning of the line. Deletes the current line. Deletes all lines to the end of the file. Deletes the current character. Deletes the n characters to the right. Yanks n lines into the buffer.
D Deletes all words to the end of the line.
p Pastes to the right of the cursor. P Pastes to the left of the cursor. A separate set of commands, called the ex commands, can be run by using the colon in conjunction with one of these commands: :n :$ Moves the cursor to line n. Moves the cursor to the end of the file. Replaces all occurrences of string a with string b on the current line. Replaces all occurrences of string a with string b in the entire file.
: s/a/b/g :%s/a/b/g :wq :q! :set
Saves the modified file and quits. Quits without saving any changes. Sets a number of different options.
Let s examine the result of using the ex command :%s/a/b/g. Figure 6-2 shows the /etc/passwd file with an ex command that searches for all occurrences of export and replaces them with staff . Figure 6-3 shows the result output, with the string /export/home, for example, now changed to /staff/home.
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