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Shells, Scripts, and Scheduling
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192.168.205.238 - - [12/Feb/2002:09:35:59 +1000] "GET /images/ picture49.gif HTTP/1.1" 200 2386 192.168.205.238 - - [12/Feb/2002:09:36:09 +1000] "GET /servlet/SimpleServlet HTTP/1.1" 200 10497
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The tail command also has an option that allows you to continuously monitor all new entries made to a file. This is very useful for monitoring a live service such as Apache, where you need to observe any error made in real time. The format for this command is as follows:
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tail f filename
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In this chapter, we have examined how to manage files and directories, and how to work with the shell. In addition, we have examined the commands used to write shell scripts, and other commonly used shell commands. Since the shell is the administrator s interface to the operating system, it s important that you become familiar with shell commands and procedures.
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Process Management
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rocesses lie at the heart of modern multiuser operating systems, providing the ability to run multiple applications and services concurrently on top of the kernel. In user terms, process management is a central feature of using a single login shell to start and stop multiple jobs running concurrently, often suspending their execution while waiting for input. Solaris 10 provides many tools for process management. This chapter highlights the new process-management tools and command formats, and discusses the innovative /proc file systems and associated tools that allow administrators to deal with zombie processes.
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One of the appealing characteristics of Solaris and other UNIX-like systems is that applications can execute (or spawn) other applications: after all, user shells are nothing more than applications themselves. A shell can spawn another shell or application, which can spawn another shell or application, and so on. Instances of applications, such as the Sendmail mail transport agent or the Telnet remote access application, can be uniquely identified as individual processes and are associated with a unique process identifier (PID), which is an integer. You may be wondering why PIDs are not content addressable that is, why the Sendmail process cannot be identified as simply Sendmail. Such a scheme would be quite sensible if it were impossible to execute multiple, independent instances of the same application (like early versions of the MacOS). However, Solaris allows the same user or different users to concurrently execute the same application independently, which means that an independent identifier is required for each process. This also means that each PID is related to a user identifier (UID) and to that user s group identifier (GID). The UID in this case can be either the real UID of the user who executed the process or the effective UID if the file executed is setUID. Similarly, the GID in this case can be either the real GID, which is the GID that identifies the group to which the user who executed the process belongs, or the effective GID if the file executed is setGID. When an application can be executed as setUID and setGID, other users can execute that application as the user
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Part II:
System Essentials
who owns the file. This means that setting a file as setGID for root can be dangerous in some situations, albeit necessary. An application, such as a shell, can spawn another application by using the system call system() in a C program. This is expensive performance-wise, however, because a new shell process is spawned in addition to the target application. An alternative is to use the fork() system call, which spawns child processes directly, with applications executed using exec(). Each child process is linked back to its parent process: if the parent process exits, the parent process automatically reverts to PID 1, which exits when the system is shut down or rebooted. In this section, you ll look at ways to determine which processes are currently running on your system and how to examine process lists and tables to determine what system resources are being used by specific processes. The main command used to list commands is ps, which is highly configurable and has many command-line options. These options, and the command format, use System V style parameters, like ps eaf. However, whereas ps takes only a snapshot of the current process list, many administrators find that they need to interactively monitor processes on systems that have a high load so that they can kill processes that are consuming too much memory, or at least assign them a lower execution priority. One popular process-monitoring tool is top, which is described later in this chapter in the section Using the top Program.
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