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$ ps -cf UID PID PPID paul 29081 29079 paul 29085 29081
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CLS PRI STIME TTY TS 48 10:40:30 pts/8 TS 48 10:40:51 pts/8
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TIME CMD 0:00 /bin/ksh 0:00 /usr/local/bin/bash
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If you want to obtain information about processes being executed by a particular group of users, this can be specified on the command line by using the g option, followed by the GID of the target group. In this example, all processes from users in group 0 will be printed:
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$ ps -g 0 PID TTY 0 1 2 3
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Process Management
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Another common configuration option used with ps is j, which displays the session identifier (SID) and the process group identifier (PGID), as shown here:
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$ ps -j PID PGID SID TTY 29081 29081 29081 pts/8 29085 29085 29081 pts/8
TIME CMD 0:00 ksh 0:00 bash
Finally, you can print out the status of lightweight processes (LWP) in your system. These are virtual CPU or execution resources, which are designed to make the best use of available CPU resources based on their priority and scheduling class. Here is an example:
$ ps -L PID 29081 29085
LWP TTY 1 pts/8 1 pts/8
LTIME CMD 0:00 ksh 0:00 bash
Using the top Program
If you re an administrator, you probably want to keep an eye on all processes running on a system, particularly if the system is in production use. Buggy programs can consume large amounts of CPU time, preventing operational applications from carrying out their duties efficiently. Monitoring the process list almost constantly is necessary, especially if performance begins to suffer on a system. Although you could keep typing ps eaf every five minutes or so, a much more efficient method is to use the top program to monitor the processes in your system interactively, and to use its vital statistics, such as CPU activity states, real and virtual memory status, and the load average. In addition, top displays the details of the leading processes that consume the greatest amount of CPU time during each sampling period. The display of top can be customized to include any number of these leading processes at any one time, but displaying the top 10 or 20 processes is usually sufficient to keep an eye on rogue processes. The latest version of top can always be downloaded from ftp://ftp.groupsys.com/pub/top. top reads the /proc file system to generate its process statistics. This usually means that top runs as a setUID process, unless you remove the read and execute permissions for nonroot users and run it only as root. Paradoxically, doing this may be just as dangerous, because any errors in top may impact the system at large if executed by the root user. Again, setUID processes are dangerous, and you should evaluate whether the trade-off between accessibility and security is worthwhile in this case. One of the main problems with top running on Solaris is that top is very sensitive to changes in architecture and/or operating system version. This is particularly the case if the GNU gcc compiler is used to build top, as it has its own set of include files. These files must exactly match the version of the current operating system, otherwise top will not work properly: the CPU state percentages may be wrong, indicating that
Part II:
System Essentials
processes are consuming all CPU time, when the system is actually idle. The solution is to rebuild gcc so that it generates header files that are appropriate for your current operating system version. Let s examine a printout from top:
last PID: 16630; load averages: 0.17, 0.08, 0.06 09:33:29 72 processes: 71 sleeping, 1 on cpu CPU states: 87.6% idle, 4.8% user, 7.5% kernel, 0.1% iowait, 0.0% swap Memory: 128M real, 3188K free, 72M swap in use, 172M swap free
This summary tells us that the system has 72 processes, with only 1 running actively and 71 sleeping. The system was 87.6 percent idle in the previous sampling epoch, and there was little swapping or iowait activity, ensuring fast performance. The load average for the previous 1, 5, and 15 minutes was 0.17, 0.08, and 0.06 respectively this is not a machine that is taxed by its workload. The last PID to be issued to an application, 16630, is also displayed.
PID 259 16630 345 16580 9196 13818 338 112 157 422 2295 8350 8757 4910 366 USERNAME root pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters pwatters root pwatters nobody pwatters THR PRI NICE SIZE RES STATE 1 59 0 18M 4044K sleep 1 59 0 1956K 1536K cpu 8 33 0 7704K 4372K sleep 1 59 0 5984K 2608K sleep 1 48 0 17M 1164K sleep 1 59 0 5992K 872K sleep 1 48 0 7508K 0K sleep 3 59 0 1808K 732K sleep 5 58 0 2576K 576K sleep 1 48 0 4096K 672K sleep 1 48 0 7168K 0K sleep 10 51 0 3000K 2028K sleep 1 48 10 5992K 1340K sleep 1 0 0 1916K 0K sleep 1 28 0 1500K 0K sleep TIME CPU COMMAND 58:49 1.40% Xsun 0:00 1.19% top 0:21 0.83% dtwm 0:00 0.24% dtterm 0:28 0.01% netscape 0:01 0.00% dtterm 0:04 0.00% dtsession 0:03 0.00% nis_cachemgr 0:02 0.00% automountd 0:01 0.00% textedit 0:01 0.00% dtfile 0:01 0.00% nscd 0:01 0.00% dtterm 0:00 0.00% httpd 0:00 0.00% sdtvolcheck
This top listing shows a lot of information about each process running on the system, including the PID, the user who owns the process, the nice value (priority), the size of the application, the amount resident in memory, its current state (active or sleeping), the CPU time consumed, and the command name. For example, the Apache Web server runs as the httpd process (PID=4910), by the user nobody, and is 1916KB in size. Changing the nice value of a process ensures that it receives more or less priority from the process scheduler. Reducing the nice value ensures that the process priority is decreased, while increasing the nice value increases the process priority. Unfortunately, while ordinary users can decrease their nice value, only the superuser can increase the nice value for a process. In the preceding example for top, the dtterm process is running with a nice value of 10, which is low. If the root user wanted to increase the priority of a new dtterm process by 20, they would issue the following command:
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