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The pkill command can be used to send signals to processes that have the same name. It is a more specific version of pgrep, since it can be used only to send signals, and the list of PIDs cannot be piped to another program. To kill all processes associated with the name java, the following command would be used:
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Process Management
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The killall command is used to kill all processes running on a system. It is called by shutdown when the system is being bought to run-level 0. However, since a signal can be passed to the killall command, it is possible for a superuser to send a different signal (other than 9) to all processes. For example, to send a SIGHUP signal to all processes, the following command could be used:
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In this chapter, we have examined how to manage and monitor processes. Since processes and threads are the entities that actually carry out the execution of applications, it s important that you understand how to send signals to manage their activity.
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Security
CHAPTER 9 System Security CHAPTER 10 File System Access Control CHAPTER 11 Role-Based Access Control CHAPTER 12 Users, Groups, and the Sun Management Console CHAPTER 13 Kerberos and Pluggable Authentication
Copyright 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
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System Security
ecurity is a central concern of system administrators of all network operating systems, because all services may potentially have inherent flaws or weaknesses revealed through undetected bugs that can compromise a system. Solaris is no exception, and new Solaris administrators will find themselves visiting issues that they may have encountered with other operating systems. For example, Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Solaris all run database systems that have daemons that listen for connections arriving through the Internet. These servers may be shipped with default user accounts with well-known passwords that are not inactivated by local administrators after configuration and administration. Consequently, exploits involving such services are often broadcast on Usenet newsgroups, cracking mailing lists, and Web sites. This chapter covers the basic security requirements for Solaris systems, including assurances of integrity, authenticity, privacy, trust, and confidentiality. The focus will be on securing Solaris systems for the enterprise at all levels.
Key Concepts
The following key concepts are important for understanding system security in the context of Solaris.
Security Requirements
Security from the enterprise perspective is essentially an exercise in risk management, whether those risks arise from randomly occurring accidental events or intentionally malevolent events. Examples of accidents include fire, hardware failure, software bugs, and data entry errors, while malevolence manifests itself in fraud, denial of service, theft, and sabotage. To some extent, the end result to the enterprise is lost business, which translates to lost money, regardless of whether a realized risk is accidental or intentional. However, the legal means of recourse can be quite different. In each case, data and applications may be deleted or modified, while physical systems may be damaged or destroyed. For example, Web sites with inadequate access controls on their source files that are displayed as Web pages are often defaced, with their contents
Copyright 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.
Part III:
Security
modified for fun or profit. Computer systems that are stolen obviously have to be replaced, but the amount of reconfiguration required can be significant, as can the underlying loss of data. Given that so many mission critical systems, such as those in banking and government, are now completely electronic, how would end users cope with the complete loss of their records Worse still, personal data may be exposed to the world embarrassing for the subscribers of an adult site, very dangerous for participants of a witness protection program. Managing risk obviously involves a human element that is beyond the scope of this book social-engineering attacks are widespread, and few technological solutions (except biometrics!) may ameliorate such problems. However, failures attributable to human factors can be greatly reduced with the kinds of automation and logical evaluation provided by computation. For example, an automated identification system that recognizes individuals entering an office suite, classifying them as employees or visitors, would reduce the requirements on local staff to know everybody s face in the organization. Because employees may object to the storage of their photographs on a work computer, you may want to consider using a one-way hash instead of storing a photograph, a one-way hash can be computed from the image data and stored, while the original image is discarded. When an employee enters the building, a hash is computed of that image, and if a match is made against any of the hashes stored in the database, then the employee can be positively identified. In this way, organizational security can be greatly enhanced while not compromising the privacy of individual workers. The relationship between security and privacy need not be orthogonal, since well-designed technology can often provide solutions that ensure both privacy and security.
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