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FIGURE 7-8 Grid-connected PV system
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The Fundamentals of a PV System
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FIGURE 7-9 Ground-mounted PV
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FIGURE 7-10 PV controller
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Seven The inverter is connected to a controller if batteries are used. The controller directs the flow of electricity. The controller is then connected into a power meter that measures electrical flow in both directions (Figure 7-11). This is called net metering, and this is what allows you to send or sell surplus electricity to the grid. Batteries are optional to provide energy storage or backup power in the event of a power interruption or an outage from the grid. Even if you live in a remote area, stand-alone PV systems with batteries can be purchased to store energy for later use. This type of PV system is common and easy to implement and use. The type of system you choose is usually dictated primarily by cost. Backup systems, including batteries, generators, or hydrogen systems, can be used at an additional cost that most homeowners are unwilling to accept. Hybrid systems with fuel cells or generators are also possible, but these systems are significantly more expensive than a simple PV project. This book focuses primarily on simple PV systems. Backup and hybrid systems are discussed, but because they are cost prohibitive and uncommon (Figure 7-12), they are not covered extensively. Finding an installer that can provide a complete hybrid system can also be difficult, though that could change in the future as these systems become more popular.
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FIGURE 7-11 Electrical meter
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The Fundamentals of a PV System
Hybrid Power Systems
Combine multiple sources to deliver non-intermittent electric power
PV Modules
Generator
Regulation and conversion Wind turbine Battery bank
AC or DC
Load
02979301m
FIGURE 7-12 Hybrid PV system
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/residential/images/wind-powered _electric_systems_3.gif
How PV Cells Work
A typical solar PV cell consists of a glass or plastic cover or other encapsulant, an anti-reflective layer, a front contact to allow electrons to enter a circuit, a back contact to allow them to complete the circuit, and the semiconductor layers where the electrons begin and complete their journey. You can think of PV cells (Figure 7-13) as individual power plants that convert solar light into electricity. When sunlight strikes the cell material, it releases electrons that flow along an electrical wire (Figure 7-14). The light spectrum (Figure 7-15) is also important to a PV cell. The part of the spectrum used by the silicon in a PV module is from 0.3 to 0.6 micrometers, approximately the same wavelengths that the human eye can see. These wavelengths encompass the highest energy region of the solar spectrum. Traditional cells use only this short range of light energy.
Seven
FIGURE 7-13 PV cell
http://www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov/solar101/images/nrel_solar_cell.jpg
Load
Current Sunlight
N-type silicon Junction P-type silicon
Photons
Electron flow
Hole flow
FIGURE 7-14 PV cell electrical production
http://www.energyeducation.tx.gov/renewables/section_3/topics/photovoltaic _cells/img/fig13photo-cell.png
The Fundamentals of a PV System
Visible
Near infrared Solar energy distribution
Ultraviolet (300 400 nm) Visible (400 700 nm) Near infrared (700 2500 nm)
Solar intensity
0.0 250
Wavelength (in nanometers)
FIGURE 7-15 Light spectrum
http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/sb/Aug-2004/reflectance _wavelength.jpg
The absorption coefficient of a material indicates how far light having a specific wavelength can penetrate the material before being absorbed. A small absorption coefficient means that light is not readily absorbed by the material. The absorption coefficient of a solar cell depends on two factors: the material making up the cell, and the wavelength or energy of the light being absorbed. Another term important to the PV cell is the bandgap. The bandgap of a semiconductor material is the minimum amount of energy that is needed to move an electron from its static state. The lowest energy level of a semiconductor material is called the valence band. The higher energy level where an electron is free to roam is called the conduction band. The bandgap is the energy difference between the conduction band and valence band. The semiconductor layer of the solar cell is where current is created (Figure 7-16). Creating this perfect layer is expensive, because any impurities will affect performance.
Seven
Sunlight Antireflection coating Transparent adhesive Cover glass Front contact Current
N-type semiconductor P-type semiconductor
Substrate Back contact
FIGURE 7-16 Solar cell construction
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar_cell_materials.html
Solar Cells and Panels
Solar cells are made from a range of semiconductor materials usually one of three types of base materials: Silicon (Si), which includes single-crystalline, multicrystalline, and amorphous forms Polycrystalline thin films, which include copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single crystalline thin films, which include gallium arsenide (GaAs) The type of material used and how it is formed is of great importance. The crystallinity of materials indicates how perfectly ordered the atoms are in the crystal structure. Silicon and other semiconductor materials come in these main forms: Single or monocrystalline: Crystals are repeated in a regular pattern from layer to layer. Polycrystalline or multicrystalline: Small crystals are arranged randomly, similar to shattered glass. Amorphous silicon or thin film: Materials in these panels have no crystalline structure. For most practical purposes, all commercially available solar panel types function in similar ways. Your choice of panels depends on how
The Fundamentals of a PV System much power you require, how much room you have you have for panels, and where they will be mounted.
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