crystal reports data matrix Single- or Monocrystalline-Silicon Panels in Visual Studio .NET

Creator Data Matrix in Visual Studio .NET Single- or Monocrystalline-Silicon Panels

Single- or Monocrystalline-Silicon Panels
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Monocrystalline silicon panels use crystalline silicon, a basic semiconductor material. A mono panel has individual cells of silicon. The panels are produced in large sheets that can be cut to the size of a panel and integrated into the panel as a single large cell. Conducting metal strips are laid over the entire cell to capture electrons and form an electrical current. Monocrystalline is the oldest technology and the most expensive to produce, but it offers the highest efficiency. Single silicon crystals are sliced into thin layers to make individual wafers. A solar panel is made up of a matrix of these wafers laid flat. They are long-lasting and degrade slowly.
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Polycrystalline, or Multicrystalline, Silicon Panels
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Polycrystalline silicon panels are the most common type of solar panels on the market today. Polycrystalline, or multicrystalline, PVs use a series of cells instead of one large cell (Figure 7-17). These panels consists of multiple small silicon crystals that look a lot like shattered glass. They are slightly less efficient than the monocrystalline silicon panels, but they are less expensive to produce.
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FIGURE 7-17 Polycrystalline solar panels
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http://www.bnl.gov/energy/images/Solar-300px.jpg
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Seven Although they are less efficient than single crystal, once the polycrystalline cells are set into a frame with 35 or so other cells, the actual difference in watts produced per square foot is not significant. These panels are also sliced from long cylinders of silicon, but the silicon used is multicrystalline, which is easier to make. They are similar to monocrystalline panels in performance and degradation. Several production techniques can be used to create polycrystalline panels.
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Cast Polysilicon In this process, molten silicon is first cast in a large block to form crystalline silicon. Then the block is shaved across its width to create thin wafers to be used in PV cells. These cells are then assembled in a panel. Conducting metal strips are laid over the cells, connecting them to each other and forming a continuous electrical current throughout the panel. String Ribbon Silicon String ribbon PVs use a variation on the polycrystalline production process. Molten silicon is drawn into thin strips of crystalline silicon using metal strings. These strips of PV material are then assembled in a panel. Metal conductor strips are attached to each strip to create a path for the electrical current. This technology reduces costs and it eliminates the process of producing wafers.
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Amorphous Silicon or Thin-Film Panels
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Thin-film panels are quite different from crystalline panels (Figure 7-18). Materials in these panels have no crystalline structure. Instead, silicon is sprayed or applied onto a base as a thin film. The silicon materials are then connected to the same metal conductor strips used in other technologies. Amorphous panels do not require the same level of protection needed for more fragile crystalline cells during production or use. Thin-film is a relatively new product, so its 20-year performance can only be estimated. One company guarantees less than 20 percent degradation over 20 years, which compares with 10 percent for the other types of panels mentioned. The primary advantages of thin-film panels are the low manufacturing costs and versatility. The production process is more energy-efficient than that of the other cell types, so the cells are typically cheaper for the same rated power. Thin-film panels are less efficient, but amorphous silicon does not depend on the long, expensive process of creating silicon
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The Fundamentals of a PV System
FIGURE 7-18 Amorphous silicon or thin-film panels
http://www.nrel.gov/pv/thin_film/docs/shell_solar_cis_roof.jpg
crystals, so these panels can be produced more quickly and efficiently. Additional components are not required, so costs are reduced further. Thin-film panels have several significant disadvantages. Production cost is low but so is efficiency. Thin-film technologies also depend on silicon, which has high levels of impurities. This reduces efficiency rapidly over the life of the product. The big news in thin film is from some of the largest manufacturers. In 2010, two of the leading manufacturers increased production in exponential proportions. This may allow the sale of thin-film at half the cost, in energy production, of coal. This may mark the beginning of a thin-film solar revolution.
Each type of solar panel degrades at a different rate, so although some panels provide a great cost-performance ratio up front, you should compare the performance guarantee 20 years into the future. Thin-film solar panels generally degrade approximately 1 percent each year, whereas crystalline panels degrade at approximately 0.5 percent annually.
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