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Group III and V Technologies
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The future of PV solar is in Group III and V technologies. These technologies use a variety of materials with very high conversion efficiencies, claiming efficiencies of 25 to 80 percent. These materials are categorized as Group III and Group V elements in the periodic table, hence their name. Gallium arsenide is combined with other materials to create semiconductors that can react to different types of solar energy. These technologies are very efficient; however, their use is limited due to the material costs.
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Building-Integrated Photovoltaic
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Building-integrated PV (BIPV), another category of promising new solar products, is designed to serve a dual purpose: it s a standard construction material that can also produce electricity. For example, it can be used as an amorphous silicon roofing material (Figure 7-19). BIPV technologies have very low efficiency levels due to their use of amorphous silicon. The advantage is that this material can be used anywhere, so that large areas can be devoted to producing electricity.
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FIGURE 7-19 Building-integrated PV
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http://www.nrel.gov/pv/thin_film/docs/shell_cis_bipv_dsc01285.jpg
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The Fundamentals of a PV System
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Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems are designed to increase efficiency of solar PVs by using focused energy. CSP PV systems use a standard PV panel with concentrating lenses that gather sunlight. They require less silicon for the same amount of output and reduce the amount of space required for a PV installation. The disadvantage of CSP is its reliance on direct light to produce electricity. PV panels can use both direct and diffuse light, but CSP PV systems require direct light. They do function well with tracking solar (discussed later in the chapter); however, many geographical regions do not receive enough direct light. The second disadvantage is that the lenses require maintenance to sustain efficiency.
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High-Efficiency Multijunction Devices
High-efficiency multijunction devices (HEMDs) are an evolving technology that uses multiple layers of PV cells (Figure 7-20). Each layer acts as a link where solar energy is absorbed. Each layer in an HEMD is made from a different material with its own receptivity to each type of solar energy. HEMDs takes advantage of the entire light spectrum.
p band 3 0.8 eV
band 2
1.8 eV
2.6 eV
band 1
FIGURE 7-20 High-efficiency multijunction devices
http://emat-solar.lbl.gov/images/multiband_v02.jpg
Seven In an HEMD, the top PV layer reacts to light that travels in short wavelengths and has the highest amount of energy. Each layer absorbs solar energy as the waves pass through the sheet.
Solar Panel Efficiency
A solar panel s energy conversion efficiency is the percentage of power converted (from absorbed light to electrical energy) and collected when a solar cell is connected to an electrical circuit. The following numbers are the advertised percentages of efficiency for each of the different types of solar panels: Monocrystalline: 19 percent Polycrystalline: 15 percent Amorphous (thin-film): 10 percent Unfortunately, the best solar panels, under ideal conditions, are about 19 percent efficient. This means that 81 percent of the energy that reaches your solar panel is not used. Of the 19 percent energy captured, under ideal conditions, the inverter then wastes 5 to 10 percent of that energy (so, on average, only 77 percent of the total energy is used). The electric meter, wiring, and any additional components waste more of the original 19 percent captured energy.
For additional information about solar panels, see these websites: http://www.masstech.org/cleanenergy/solar_info/types.htm http://www.solarquotes.com.au/types-of-solar-panel.html http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/electricity/index.cfm/ mytopic=10791 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/photovoltaics.html
The Inverter
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current, DC, to alternating current, AC (Figure 7-21). The AC voltage can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. Inverter voltage can be as high as 1000 volts in Europe on the DC side, 600 volts in the US, with no minimum voltage. Inverters over 25 kilowatt (kW) use three-phase, while most residential systems of 10 kW or less use single-phase.
The Fundamentals of a PV System
FIGURE 7-21 The electrical inverter
http://www.pinecottages.ca/images/Solar%20Power%20Pics/Battery-Inverter.jpg
Inverter efficiencies are currently between 85 and 95 percent, although recent developments have some large manufacturers claiming inverter efficiencies for solar power of 98 percent. Complementing your products with compatible components will increase efficiency of the overall PV system. Ask your solar supplier or installer about individual component and overall efficiencies.
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