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You ll recall that PV solar collects light from a small band of the light spectrum (Figure 12-4). Some new forms of thin-film solar focus on collecting more of the light spectrum to produce additional energy for the same square feet. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, working with crystal-growing teams at Cornell University and Japan s Ritsumeikan University, are at the forefront of such technology: http://www.lbl.gov/ Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-full-spectrum-solar-cell.html.
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The Future of Solar Energy
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103 102 Photon energy (eV)
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FIGURE 12-4 Solar light spectrum
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http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/images/illust_radiation.gif
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Hybrid Technologies
Hybrid solar technologies (Figure 12-5) involve the integration of multiple technologies that allow the homeowner access to off-the-grid electricity 24 hours a day, every day of the year. In a hybrid solar energy system, PV panels are part of an integrated system. When the sun is not available, these systems use stored solar energy from grid electricity, hydrogen fuel cells, and batteries to disperse electricity.
Electrical Grid
The utility grid, while not the most efficient form of energy, does provide a good backup or a secondary system for your PV system. As long as you produce as much energy as you can through solar, you can tap into the grid for supplemental energy, as needed. The grid is like a big battery.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Hydrogen fuel cells can be used to store solar energy (Figure 12-6). At the moment, this is a very expensive option. In this system, the PV solar pan-
Twelve
Hybrid Power Systems
Combine multiple sources to deliver non-intermittent electric power
PV Modules
Generator
Regulation and conversion Wind turbine Battery bank
AC or DC
Load
02979301m
FIGURE 12-5 Hybrid solar technologies
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/residential/images/wind-powered _electric_systems_3.gif
Night
Solar array DC/DC
Motor
Hydrogen Electrolyzer Oxygen
Fuel cell
Water
FIGURE 12-6 Hydrogen fuel cell system
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/images/content/107641main_Helios _diagram.jpg
The Future of Solar Energy els produce electricity, and the surplus electricity is converted into hydrogen and stored in fuel cells. When sunlight is unavailable, the stored hydrogen in converted back into electricity.
Battery Backup
The third viable option today is PV solar with a battery backup system. Figure 12-7 shows the Hubble telescope battery system that functions pretty much the same as any other PV and battery system would function. When the sunlight is available, the electricity it produces charges the batteries. After the sun sets, the system uses the energy stored in the batteries. This type of system can be completely independent of the grid. The only limitation is the size of the PV system required to produce electricity and the size of the battery bank to store the potential energy. Even so, a similar system is affordable for many homeowners.
Storage Systems
Mechanical storage includes the mainspring in a watch, the water from a fast-flowing stream, or a dam (Figure 12-8); these are all forms of stored or potential energy.
FIGURE 12-7 PV solar with battery backup
http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/274993main_battery3.jpg
Twelve
FIGURE 12-8 Hoover Dam
http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/images/C45-20485-L.jpg
Thermal storage for homeowners can be as simple as opening the blinds in your home. The sunlight heats the floor or wall and then releases the energy as heat when the sun is no longer available. This, of course, is passive solar. It is immediate and delivered pollution-free and cost-free. Thermal storage can also be used on an industrial scale (Figure 12-9). Industrial thermal storage concentrates solar energy, using water, oil, salt, or other media for heat transfer. Concentrating solar uses a fluid heated to greater than 1000 F. After the sun has set, the heat stored in the liquid is used to create steam and turn a turbine to produce electricity.
The Promise of the Future
The promise of hybrid solar and solar as a complete energy form is tremendous, from the smallest example (Figure 12-10) to the most complicated. Using solar, you can become electrically independent.
The Future of Solar Energy
Steam condenser
Electricity
Thermal ThermalThermal storage tanksstorage tanks tanks
ReceiverReceiverReceive Generator Turbine Parabolic troughs
FIGURE 12-9 Solar thermal generation
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/images/parabolic_troughs.jpg
Controller Converter Batteries
FIGURE 12-10 Independent solar system
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/guide/images/off_grid_ac _solarsystem.gif
Twelve The electrical grid in the United States is predicted to require $2 trillion in upgrades by 2030 to maintain current levels of reliable energy (http://www.brattle.com/NewsEvents/NewsDetail.asp RecordID=568). Individual home solar energy systems would eliminate this and future costs of maintenance, development, and new power stations. These types of independent systems are available for energy, water, and sewage, and all dramatically reduce pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. Many technologies are available today and others are being developed every day to provide for energy now and in the future. Your job today is to take part in the solar revolution.
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