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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
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2.7 Life Cycle Assessment
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2.7.1 OVERVIEW
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Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a proactive product-focused approach to minimizing waste or by-products. LCA analyzes the wastes generated that are associated with a speci c product over its entire life from cradle to grave. In other words, LCA analyzes the product s life from procuring raw materials to nal disposal (or reclamation). This is in contrast to waste exchanges that take a reactive approach, which aid in diverting wastes from land lls after they are generated with little thought to reducing the waste from the start of the process. The term closing the loop is often used with the LCA process. The concept involves examining the entire cradle-to-grave process as a continuous loop. Figures 2.11 and 2.12 display the components and overview of the life cycle analysis respectively. The idea is to prevent waste materials or by-products from leaving the loop, hence closing the loop. By closing the loop, solid waste can be minimized by preventing its generation in the rst place. For example, bottle deposits in
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Life cycle analysis components.
BACKGROUND AND FUNDAMENTALS OF SOLID WASTE ANALYSIS AND MINIMIZATION
Raw materials Energy Energy Energy
Production
Disposal
Waste Emissions to air and water
Waste Emissions to air and water
Waste Emissions to air and water
Life cycle process overview.
Michigan are an attempt to close the loop by reclaiming used beverage bottles by collecting a deposit at the time of purchase and refunding it at the time of recycling. The LCA process consists of four phases
1 2 3 4
Goal and scope development Life cycle inventory Impact audits Analysis and action
2.7.2 GOAL AND SCOPE DEVELOPMENT
The LCA process stems from developing environmental indices to evaluate the seriousness of the by-products generated from a process and provide direction to managers in deciding which by-products generate the largest threat to the environment. The rst step is to determine the speci c goals and scope of study in relation to the intended application. One key step of this phase is to specify the functional unit. The functional unit is the measurement that will be used as the central reference point throughout the LCA process. For the example, if a company were comparing glass versus plastic bottles, the functional unit could be 1-L bottle container for carbonated beverages. The company would then rate the environmental and economic impacts for using glass bottles versus plastic bottles. It is important to point out that the containers may not be the same weight, but provide the same functional use, in this case containing 1 L of carbonated beverage. Apart from describing the functional unit, the goal and scope should address the overall approach used to establish the system boundaries. The system boundary determines which unit processes are included in the LCA and re ects the goal of the study. Finally the goal and scope phase includes a description of the method applied for assessing potential environmental impacts and
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
which impact categories included. A common approach to this has been developed by the Swedish Environmental Institute and Volvo by creating six environmental indices. These indices are
1 Scope The general impression of the environmental impact 2 Distribution The extent of the affected area 3 Frequency or intensity The regularity and intensity of the problem in the affected
area 4 Durability The permanence of the effect 5 Contribution The signi cance of 1 kg of the emission of the substance in relation to the total effect 6 Remediability The relative cost to reduce the emission by 1 kg
2.7.3 LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY
The second phase of LCA involves performing an inventory analysis. Usually the starting point is to develop a process owchart that sequentially describes the entire process from cradle to grave and includes
The process step Inputs into the process (raw materials, chemicals, and energy) Outputs and emissions from the process (air emissions, waster emissions, and solid
waste) The data must be related to the functional unit de ned in the goal and scope de nition. Data may be presented in tables and some preliminary interpretations may be completed at this stage. The result of the life cycle inventory is a list which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary ow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study.
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