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METRICS AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
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7.1 Introduction
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Accurately measuring solid waste minimization performance and tracking trends is a critical step for a successful program. Measurement is needed before a company can begin to manage and improve the solid waste problem. Without knowing a starting point, or baseline measurement, it is very dif cult to develop a plan to meet organizational waste minimization goals. This chapter addresses this issue and discuses the various metrics to evaluate solid waste generation and minimization performance. The metrics can be broken down into three categories
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1 Environmental impact in terms of solid waste emission rates 2 Business and nancial performance 3 Voice of the customers and stakeholders
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The remaining of this chapter will address these three categories and discuss their role in developing a strong solid waste minimization program.
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7.2 Solid Waste Quantity Measurement
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Measuring and tracking solid waste generation trends and the performance of individual companies is critical to its successful management and reduction. For any process improvement, an accurate data-driven baseline must be created and monitored to
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METRICS AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
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measure success toward meeting a goal. In this case, measuring a company s waste generation and recycling levels. Traditionally, solid waste generation and recycling levels are reported by total output. For example, the plant generated 150 tons of solid waste this month, of this amount 15 tons, or 10 percent, were recycled. This measurement approach has a very serious shortcoming. The primary aw is that is does not consider production levels or resource inputs. For example, if two similar manufacturing plants generated the same amounts of solid waste, but the second plant has only half the production volume, the second plant is not doing a good job of managing its waste streams. Several other approaches have been developed to compensate for these aws and allow for an equal apples-to-apples comparison. Five of the most common metrics by which solid waste generation can be measured are
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Absolute measures Measures indexed to a production output based quantity Measures indexed to a production input based quantity Measures indexed to throughput Measures indexed to a production activity
All except the rst of these metrics are based on the ratio of generation to some measure of business activity.
7.2.1 ABSOLUTE MEASURES
A comparison of the mass of solid waste generated in 1 year to the mass that is generated in another year is an absolute measure of waste generation. Such measurements are consistent and easy to understand, for example 1 lb of plastic scrap generated last year is equal to 1 lb of plastic scrap generated this year. The major drawback is that they ignore production levels or business activities associated with waste generation. For example, if a manufacturing plant reduces it total solid waste generation by 50 percent, it might indicate a major effort to reduce waste or it might be associated with a large drop in production volume, such as the loss of a large contract that accounts for 50 percent of its total production volume. The solution to this problem is to normalize the data or index solid waste generation to some measure of production.
7.2.2 MEASURES INDEXED TO OUTPUT
Solid waste can be indexed to the mass of products, number of products, or dollar value of products. A good example of this in the automobile industry is waste per vehicle produced. Using this index, the company will now have a more meaningful comparison of waste generation rates at different production levels. A drawback of this approach is that it does not consider signi cant changes to output. For example, if the automobile plant shifts from producing sport utility vehicles to compact hybrid cars, waste per vehicle would be expected to drop too. This drop may not be linked to a solid waste reduction program, but a major change in business processes.
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